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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An organization chart shows: 3
-Methods used to departmentalize work
-Formal levels of authority
-Formal lines of communication
Types of Authority
Formal- Sanctioned by org.
Informal- Not sanct'd by org.
Organizational Trade-offs
Efficiency Vs. Flexibility
Methods of Departmentalization
• Functional
• Divisional
• Matrix
• Teams
• Network
Functional Dep.
grouped on skill and expertise
Divisional Dep.
Segmenting based on similar organizational outputs

Matrix Dep.
•Simultaneous functional and divisional chains of command
Teams (dep.)
•Cross functional elements; draw team from different departments to perform function to better operate itself

•Teams coordinate departments and accomplish tasks
Functional characteristics
• efficient due to economies of scale
• in-depth skill specialization
• slow response to external changes (less flexible
Divisional characteristics
• fast response to external changes (more flexible)
• great concern for customer needs
• duplication of resources (less efficient
Locus of Decision Making
transfer of authority and responsibility to subordinate
locating decision making authority and responsibility at lower organizational levels
Span of management
Flatter Span- few levels
Narrower Span- Many levels of authority
Wide Span characteristics
-less direct supervision (greater employee discretion)
-potential to be more flexible and creative
-tendency to be decentralized
Narrow span characteristics
•closer supervision (less employee discretion)
•potential to be more efficient
•tendency to be centralized
Rules and guidelines to control employees
-Highly formalized = low flexibility...McDonalds
-High efficiency
To Max efficiency
-High formalization
-centralized authority
-Narrow span hierarchy
-Functional departmentalization
To Max flexibility
-Low formalization
-Decnetralized authority
-Wide span hier
-Divisional departmental.
arousal, direction and persistence of behavior
Theories of Motivation (CPR)
Theories of Motivation cont'd

CPR meanings
-content: persons are motivated to satisfy certain needs
• reinforcement: consequences influence behaviors
• process: thought processes influence behaviors
Hierarchy of Needs
A content theory developed by Abraham Maslow

-Need classified into 5 levels
-Needs satis. in order
Needs Hierarchy- in order
Self Actualization
Reinforcement Theory
Behavior is influenced by its consequence
Positive Reinforcement
-Reward for positive behavior
-Behavior is MORE likely to be repeated
Avoidance Learning(negative reinforcement)
When behavior is followed by the removal or avoidance of negative consequences
Behavior is followed by no consequence
-Behavior is LESS likely to be repeated
Behavior results in negative consequences
-Behavior is FAR LESS likely to be repeated
Excellent behavior ->Positive consequences
When behavior is followed by no consequences-> Less likely to be repeated
Positive Reinforcement
-Tells employees when they do what they should
-Brings satisfaction and self-image
Only tells employees what they did wrong
-Less information
-Leads to hostility
-Lowers productivity
Solving criterion problems
Expected behavior should be expressed in measurable, observable terms
Expectancy Theory
Motivation is dependent upon expectation of ones ability to perform given task
Elements of Expectancy Theory
Effort: Perform. > Expectancy
-Effort will lead to high performance
-High performance will lead to rewards
Valence- Value of rewards
Stock Options
Useful when employee has a direct impact on outcome of business
Job Design
Job Rotation
Job Enlargement
Job Enrichment
Core Job Dimensions
Skill variety
Task Identity
Task Significance
Skill Variety
Task identity
-extent a person is required to use many skills on job
-degree a job requires completion of an entire piece of work; Beg. -> End
Task Significance
-Extent a job has a significant impact on the lives of others...meaningfulness of work
+Autonomy-freedom at work
+Feedback- indiv. obtains clear information about the effectiveness of their work
Characteristics of Teams
-Teams need leadership
-They develop norms
-They enforce norms
-They become cohesive
Benefits of teams
-Increase in effort
-Greater need satisfaction
-Greater knowledge and skill
-More respon. org's
-Faster comm.
-Teams can discipline
Problems with teams
-Can conflict with overall goals of mgmt.
-Cohesive teams resist change in org.
-Promote conformity and reduces creativity
-Can create legal problems
(Wagner Act)
-Cohesiveness inhibits contrary opinions causing:
+Ignoring obvious warning signs.
+Be overly optimistic
Techniques for management of teams
-Superordinate goals
-Participation and decision making
-Quality circles
-Self Direction
-Profit Sharing
-Gain Sharing