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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Work practices that lead to both high individual and high organizational performance
High-Performance Work Practices
Activities necessary for staffing the organization and sustaining high employee performance
Human Resource Management Process
An organization that represents workers and seeks to protect their interests through collective bargaining
Labor Union
Programs that enhance the organizational status of members of protected groups
Affirmative Action
The proven relationship that exists between a selection device and some relevant job criterion
The ability of a selection device to measure the same thing consistently
A process of establishing performance standards and evaluating performance in order to arrive at objective human resource decisions as well as to provide documentation to support those decisions
Performance Management System
External Forces
1. Governmental Laws & Regulation 2. Technology 3. Labor Markets 4. Economic Changes
Internal Forces
1. Strategy 2. Workforce 3. Equipment 4. Employee Attitudes
Techniques or programs to change people and the nature and quality of interperson work relationships.
Organizational Development (OD)
The ability of a selection device to measure the same thing consistently
A process of establishing performance standards and evaluating performance in order to arrive at objective human resource decisions as well as to provide documentation to support those decisions
Performance Management System
The actions of people
The actions of people at work
organizational behavior
A performance measure of both efficiency and effectiveness
Employee Productivity
The voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrowl from an organization
Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee's formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization
Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Evaluative statements, either favorable or unfavorable, concerning objects, people, or events
That part of an attitude that's made up of the believes, opinions, knowledge, or information held by a person
Cognitive Component
That part of an attitude that's the emotional or feeling part
Affective Component
That part of an attitude that refers to an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
Behavioral Component
The degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her job performance to be important to self-worth
Job Involvement
An employee's orientation toward the organization in terms of his or her loyalty to, identification with, and involvement in the organization
Organizational Commitment
Employees' general belief that their contribution and cares about their well-being
Perceived Organizational Support
Any incompatibility or inconsistency between attitudes or between behavior and attitudes
Cognitive Dissonance
Five factor model of personality that includes extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience
1. Extraversion 2. Agreeableness 3. Conscientiousness 4. Emotional Stability 5. Openness to experience
the degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate
Locus of Control
A measure of the degree to which people are pragmatic, maintain emotional distance, and believe that ends justify means
An individual's degree of like or dislike for himself
A personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external sutuational factors
An assortment of noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person's ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures
Emotional Intelligence
The process of organizing and interpreting sensory impressions in rder to give meaning to the environment
A theory used to explain how we judge people differently depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behavior
Attribution Theory
The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgements about the behavior of others
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors
Self-Serving Bias
The belief that others are like oneself
Assumed Similarity
Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience
A type of learning in which desired voluntary behvior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment
Operant Conditioning
A thory of learning that says people can learn through observation and direct experience
Social Learning Theory
The process of systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired behavior
Shaping Behavior
Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular goals
The first stage of development in which people join the group and then define the group's purpose, structure, and leadership
The second stage of group development which is characterized by intragroup conflict
The third stage of group development which is characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness
The fourth stage of group development when the group is fully functional
The final stage of group development for temporary groups during which group members are concerned with wrapping up activities rather than task performance
Perceived incompatible differences that result in interference or opposition
The view that all conflict is bad and must be avoided
traditional view of conflict
The view that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group
Human relations view of conflict
The view that some conflict is necessary for a group to perform effectively
interactionist view of conflict
Conflicts that support a group's goals and improve its performance
Functional conflicts
Conflicts that prevent a group from achieving its goals
dysfunctional conflicts
Conflicts over content and goals of the work
task conflict
conflict based on interpersonal relationships
relationship conflict
Conflict over how work gets done
process conflict
The processes that account for an individual's willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual need
Maslo's thoery that there is a hierarchy of five human needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization
Hierarchy of needs theory
a person's need for food, drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction, and other physical needs
Physiological Needs
A person's need for security and prodtection from physical and emotional harm
Safety needs
A person's need for affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship
Social Needs
A person's need for internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external factors such as status, recognition, and attention
Esteem Needs
A person's need to become what he or she is capable of becoming
Self-Actualization Needs
The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform
Theory X
The assumption that employees are creative, enjoy work, seek responsivility, and con exercise self-direction
Theory Y
The motivation theory that says three acquired needs -- achievement, power, and affiliation -- are major motives in work
three-needs theory
the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, and to strive to succeed
Need for achievement
THe need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise
Need for Power
The theory that an employee compares his or her job's input-outcomes ratio with that of relevant others and then corrects any inequity
Equity Theory
Perveived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
Procedural Justice
The theory that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual
Expectancy Theory
Leadership theories that identified behaviors that differentiated effective leaders from ineffective leaders
behavioral theories
A leader who tended to centralize authority, dictate work methods, make unilateral decisions, and limit employee participation
Autocratic Style
A leader who tended to involve employees in decision making, delegate authority, encourage participation in deciding work methods and goals, and use feedback as an opportunity for coaching employees
Democratic Style
A leader who generally gave the group complete freedom to make decisions and complete the work in whatever way it saw fit
laissex-faire style
The extent to which a leader was likely to define and structure his or her role and the roles of group members in the search for goal atainment
initiating structure
The extent to which a leader had job relationships characteried by mutual trust and respect for group members' ideas and feelings
A leader high in both initiating structure and consideration behaviors
high-high leader
A two-dimensional grid of two leadership behaviors -- concern for people and concern for production -- which resulted in five different leadership styles
Managerial Grid
A leadership theory that proposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between a leader's style of interacting with his or her followers and the degree to which the situation allows the leader to control and influence
Fiedler Contingency Model
A questionnaire that measured whether a leader was task or relationship oriented
Lease-Preferred co-worker questionnaire
One of Fiedler's situational contigencies that described the degree of confidence, trust, and respect employees had for their leader
Leader-Member relations
One of Fiedler's Situational contingencies that described the degree to which job assignments were formalized and procedurized
Task Structure
One of Fiedler's situational contingencies that described the degree of influence a leader had over powerbased sctivities such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases
position power
Leaders that quide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements
transactional leaders
leaders who provide individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation, and who possess charisma
transformational leaders
An enthusiastic, self-confident leader whose personality and actions influence people to behave in cerain ways
charismatic leader
the design, operationd, and control of the transformation process that converts resources inot finished goods or services
Operations Management
A series of international quality management standards that set uniform guidelines for processes to ensure that products conform to customer requirements
ISO 9000
A quality standard that establishes a goal of no more than 3.4 defects per million parts or procedures
Six Sigma