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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
determines the course of action
• Planning and Decision Making
Coordinating activities and resources
• Organizing
Motivating and managing people
• Leading
monitoring and evaluating activities
• Controlling
Kinds Of Managers
Top Managers
Middle Managers
First Level Managers
They Spend 51% of their time leading
First Level Managers
takes visitors to dinner, more ceremonial
• Figurehead
hiring, training and motivating employees
• Leader
coordinator to link people, groups and organizations
• Liaison
Managerial Roles:
Interpersonal
Figurehead, Leader, Liasion
Informational Managerial Roles
Monitor, Disseminator, Spokes Person
Monitor
actively seeks info that may be of value
• Disseminator
transmits relative info back to the workplace.
• Spokesperson
formally relays info to people outside the organization
Decisional Managerial Roles
• Entrepreneur
• Disturbance Handler
• Resource Allocator
• Negotiator
• Entrepreneur
voluntary initiator of change.
• Disturbance Handler
handles strikes, copyrights, and problems in PR
• Resource Allocator
decides how resources are distributed
• Negotiator
enters into negotiations with other groups as a rep of the company
7 Managerial Skills:
Technical – skills necessary to accomplish or understand the specific kind of work being done in an organization.
Interpersonal – ability to communicate with, understand, and motivate both individuals and groups.
Conceptual – manager’s ability to think in abstract.
Diagnostic – ability to visualize the most appropriate response to a situation.
Communication – abilities to both effectively convey ideas and information to others and to effectively receive ideas and information from others.
Time Management – manager’s ability to prioritize work, to work efficiently, and delegate appropriately.
Decision Making – ability to correctly recognize and define problems and opportunities and to then select an appropriate course of action to solve problems and capitalize on opportunities
Scientific Management
concerned with improving the performance of the individual workers
Administrative Management
theory that focuses on managing the organization
• Father of scientific management
• Replaced old rule of thumb method.
• Believed in selecting, training, teaching, and developing workers.
• Used time study, standards planning, exception rule of management, slide rules, instruction cards, incentives
Fredrick Taylor
Reduces # of movements in bricklaying, resulted in increased output of 200
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
• Developed other techniques, including Gantt chart, to improve working efficiently through planning and scheduling
Henry Gantt
• Wrote General and Industrial Management.
• Helped to systematize the practice of management.
• First to describe management as planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
Henri Fayol
• Conducted by Elton Mayo and associates at Western Electric (1927-1935)
• Illumination Study
Hawthorne Studies
perspective that workers respond primarily to the social context of work
Human Relations Movement
Who posted hierarchy of needs
Abraham Maslow
Who proposed Theory X and Theory Y concepts of managerial beliefs
Douglas McGregor
• People do not like work and try to avoid it.
• Managers have to control, direct, coerce, and even threaten employees to get them to meet organizational goals.
• People prefer to be directed, to avoid responsibility, and to want security; they have little ambition
Theory X
• Work is a natural part of people’s lives.
• People are internally motivated by commitment.
• People are committed to goals to the degree they receive rewards.
• People will seek and accept responsibility.
• People have the capacity to be innovative.
• People are bright, but mostly under-utilized
Theory Y
Contemporary field focusing on behavioral perspectives of management.
Organizational Behavior Research – job satisfaction, job stress, motivation and leadership, group dynamics and organizational policies, interpersonal conflict, and design of organizations
Organizational Behavior
• Provided other insights to motivation, group dynamics, and other interpersonal conflicts.
• Focused managerial attention on these critical processes.
• Challenged the view that employees are tools and furthered the belief that employees are valuable resources
Contributions
• Complexity of individuals makes behavior difficult to predict.
• Many concepts not put to use because managers are reluctant to adopt them themselves.
• Contemporary research findings are not often communicated to practicing managers in an understandable form.
Limitations
uses quantitative methods and models to manage decisions
Quantitative Management
focuses on the development of mathematical models to assist with decisions
Management Science
practical application of management science to efficiently manage the production and distribution of products and services.
Operations Management
everything outside an organization’s boundaries
External Environment
the set of broad dimensions and focus in its surroundings that create its overall context.
Sociocultural – includes the customs, mores, values, and demographic characteristics of the society in which the organization functions.
General Environment
NEXT SECION IS CATEGORIES UNDER GERNERAL ENVIROMENT
includes the customs, mores, values, and demographic characteristics of the society in which the organization functions.
Sociocultural
under general enviroment
the overall health and vitality of the economic system in which the organization operates
Economic
methods available for converting resources into products or services
Technological
government regulation of business and the relationship between business and government
Political-Legal
extent to which an organization is involved in or affected by businesses in other countries
International
specific external organizations or groups that influence an organization
Task Environment
(NEXT SECTION IS CATEGORIES UNDER TASK ENVIROMENT
other organizations that compete with it for resources
Competitors
whoever pays money to acquire an organizations products or services
Customers
organizations that provide resources for other organizations
Suppliers
two or more companies that work together in joint ventures or other partnerships
Strategic Partners
elements of the task environment that have the potential to control, legislate, or otherwise influence an organization’s policies and practices
Regulators
agency created by the government to regulate business activities
• Regulatory Agencies
group organized by its members to attempt to influence business
• Interest Group
conditions and forces within the organization
Internal Environment
whoever can claim property rights to an organization
Owners
governing body elected by a corporation’s stockholders and charged with overseeing the general management of the firm to ensure that it is being run in a way that best serves the stockholder’s interests
Board of Directors
people who do the bulk of the company work
Employees
working conditions, safety, hazards
Physical Work Environment
degree of change, degree of homogeneity
Environmental Change and Complexity
unpredictability created by environment change and complexity
Uncertainty
As the environment changes, competitors
• Adjust prices and style
• Consumer tastes change
• New resources become available
Five Competitive Forces
Threat of New Entrants
Competitive Rivalry
Threat of Substitute Products
Power of Buyers
Power of Suppliers
(NEXT CARDS PLEASE DETERMINE WHICH ONE IS WHAT)
new competitors can easily enter the market
Threat of New Entrants
competition between dominant firms in the industry.
Competitive Rivalry
alternative products may replace existing products
Threat of Substitute Products
buyers have the ability to influence suppliers
Power of Buyers
suppliers have the ability to influence buyers
Power of Suppliers
important when forming an initial understanding of the environment and monitoring the environment for signs of change
Information Management
colleagues or employees that spend most of their time outside the boundaries
Boundary Spanner
constantly scanning the environment for information
Environmental Scanning
system that collects information
Information System
individual’s personal beliefs about whether a behavior, action, or decision is right or wrong
Meaning of Ethics
Factors that Influence Ethical Behavior at Work
Individuals,Organization
Leadership: Top Managers establishing norms and culture that reinforce the importance of ethical behavior.
-Culture: Top Management who establishes the culture.
-Incentive Plan: Fair incentives and available to everyone who is qualified.
-Compensation Plan: Reimbursement for personal money spent for the company
How to Foster Ethics at Work
• Must begin with Top Management
• Code of Ethics – a formal, written statement of the values and ethical standards that guides a firm’s actions.
• Training
• Organizational Culture
• Individual Behavior
the set of obligations an organization has to protect and enhance the society in which it functions.
Social Responsibility
person or organization that is directly affected by the practices of an organization and has a stake in its performance.
Organizational Stakeholder
Areas of Social Responsibility
• Customers who use its products
• Employees and their jobs
• Investors with funds at risk
• The physical environment
• The general social welfare
Arguments For Social Responsibility
• Businesses create problems and should therefore help solve them. (Ex. Emissions)
• Corporations are citizens in our society. (Ex. Employ people)
• Businesses often have the resources necessary to solve problems. (Ex. Money)
• Business is a partner in our society along with the government and the general population. (Ex. Global Village)
Arguments Against Social Responsibility:
• Purpose of business in American society is to generate profit for owners. (Ex. Greed)
• Involvement in social programs gives businesses too much power. (Ex. Participation Takeover)
• There is potential for conflicts of interest. (Ex. Different Motivations)
• Business lacks the expertise to manage social programs. (Ex. Lack of Leadership)
REVIEW SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY STANCES
Next you will need to know the stances
Organization views itself as a citizen in a society and seeks opportunities to contribute
Proactive
Organization meets its legal and ethical obligations, but will also go beyond these in select cases
Accommodative
Organization does everything that is required of it legally, but nothing more
Defensive
firms do as little as possible to solve social or environmental problems
Obstructionist
How Government Influences Organizations
• Environmental protection legislation Direct
• Consumer protection legislation Direct
• Employee protection legislation Direct
• Securities legislation Direct
• The Tax Codes Indirect
– Government influences businesses by establishing laws and rules stating cans and cannots
Regulation