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57 Cards in this Set

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Great Man theory ?
People are born to be leaders.
Trait or attribut theory?
When social and econonic barriers no longer prevented members of the general public from occupying leadership roles.
What are common traits of a good leader?
assertiveness, ambition, charisma, creativity, decisiveness, enthysiasm, intelligence, initiative, intergrity, persistence, height, verbal ability
Why did the trait or attribute theory fail?
Failed to look at situations in which the action was occurring.
Failed to consider the importance of the group.
Behavioral theory?
looked at behaviors the leader engaged in.
Looked at organizational effectiveness by examining the contribution of social relations and formal structure.
WOrkers were no longer looked at as cogs in a machine, their ideas, attitudes, and concerns were important in an effective operation.
Behavioralist, Barnard looked at?
look at behavior, intutive, and emotional asspects of leadership and formal and informal stucture structures that exist.
Suggested that authority is delegated upward and is granted by one's subordinates.
Behavioralist, Herbert Simon belief?
described the organization as an exchange system in which emplyees produce work for specific inducments as long as they percieved the inducements as greater than the the effort required.
McGregor, Argyris, and Maslow expanded on what theory?
Behavioral Theory is also known as ?
Humanist approach.
Situation and Contingency Theory of Relationship?
Focus on the content of the situation in which leasder functions.
Stated a leader in one situation may not be effective in another situation.
Situation and Contingency Theory of Relationship theorist?
Hersey and Blanchard
Vroom and Yetton
Most contemporary theories beleive?
No single leadership style is effective.
F.E. Fielder (situation and contingency theory of relationship) theory name and what it stated?
No single leadership style is effective in all situations. The best style is contingnet on the situation.
Behavorist/Humanist Theorist
K. Lewins
C. Argyis
Douglas McGregor
Robert R. Blake
Abraham Maslow
Behaviorist, K Lewins theory looked at?
Looked that the ability to lead in relationsip to leadership style, compared leaders who made unilateral decisions with those who involved followers in decison making.
Behaviorist, R. Tannenbaum theory looked at?
Looked at the range of leadership styles open to a manager, expressed continuum ranging from manager centered leadership to subordinate centered leadership.
C.Argyris Theory name?
Humanist maturity -immaturity
C. Argyris theory looked at ?
Perceived a conflict between organization and the individual, believing the organization will be most effective when leadership provides means for followers to make a creative contibuation.
Abraham Maslow theory of self actualization stressed?
Importance of leaders developing the self esteem and psychological health of subordinates so that subordinates could become what they have the capacity to achieve.
P. Hersey and K.H. Blanchard theory- situational approach developed?
model to predict which leadership style would be most effective in situations based on followers' maturity.
Douglas McGregor, Humanist -theory X and Theory Y looked at?
Looked at different leader's views.
Theory X stated?
assumes that people are passive and resistant to organizational ned and need to be directed and motivated.
Theory Y stated?
Assumes people desire responsibility, mand are motivated, mwork hard, and are cooperative.
W.C. Ouchi expanded on McGregors Theory X and Y and stated?
Theory Z supported democrativ leadership style and stated. consensus desicion making, job secuirity, quality circles, and strong bonds between superiors and subordinates
How are Process theories different from all the other theories?
They looked at leadership as it relates to group interaction.
Types of process theories?
Transformational Leadership theory.
Relational Model of Leadership.
Servant Leadership Theory.
Social Change Model of Leadership.
Who developed the transformational leadership theory?
What did the transformational leadership theory state?
Transformational leaders are defined as leaders who motivate followers to perform at their full potential by influencing changes inperceptions and by providing a sense of direction to the group.
The group is encouraged to set aside personal interest for the good of the group.
Members are empowered and motivated and provide input into decision making.
Leaders and followers raise on another to higher levels of performance.
What theory is often reflected in nursing literature and practice?
Transformational Leadership Theory.
Relational Model of Leadership?
Leadership is viewed as relational process designed to accomplish a common goal to benefit all.
The leader is empowering and process oriented, moving the group toward the goal.
Social change model of leadership?
Individuals and groups work toward a common goal and improve quality of like for all by promoting basic values.
Leadership style
the pattern of behavior you exhibit when attempting to influence and direct the activites of others.
authoritarian, autocratic leadership characteristics also known as directive approach.
strong control by manager
activites dictator to followers
found in bureaucratic organizations
seen in the military
seen in the military or the ER
Decisions can be made quickly
Disadvantage of the authoritarian or autocratic leadership style.
when employees feel they are not listened to or supported they are less likely to have a personal stake in the achievment of management goals
Types of leadership styles?
Authoritarian Leadership
Democratic or Participative
Laissez-faire Leadership
Multicratic Leadership
Characteristics of democratic or participative leadership style.
Focuses on involving subordinates in decision making
Democratic leaders see themselves as coworkers
Autority is not used in a coercive manner
communication flows upward and downward
Democratic leaders function best in a less centralized organization with less reliance on formal rules and polices.
Disadvantages of Democratic or Participative leadership style?
Decision making can be time consuming
When group decisions cannot be implemented the group may feel they have wasted their time.
Advantages of Democratic or Participative leadership style?
The group is more motivated to support decisions
Laissez-Faire Leadership?
Less structured
Referred to as the delegation approach
Little or no direction is given
Disadvantages to Laissez-faire leadership style?
It is not possible to allow all individuals to arrive at an individual approach
Leadership vaccuum= informal leader will arise to give direction to the group
Advantages to Laissez-faire leadership style?
Provides maximum freedom for individuals
Increased motivation
Example of Laissez-faire leadership style?
Psychiatric hospital
Multicratic style
combines the best of all styles of leadership.
Legitmate power or authority
power granted by an offical position.
most often has a title
Referent power
Refers to the potential power one has because of the strenght of the relationship between the leader and followers.
An example of referent power?
When people admire leaders and see them as someone to model.
An expert and established staff nurse.
Manner in which a person dresses.
Type of referent power
Power that attracts one person to another
Power dressing is an example of what type of power?
Referent power
Reward power?
influencing others because of one's control over desired resources. Power to give raises, bonuses, rewards.
Expert power
Possession of special knowledge, wisdom, aound judgement, good decisions, skill or ability
Usually limited to a specialty area.
Informatinal power
When individuals have information that others must have to accomplish a particular goal.
May also involve working with others to accomplish a common goal.
Connection power
Power based on connections or association to those who are powerful.
Coercive power AKA punishment power?
opposite of reward
negative sanctions and verbal threats are used to mangage.
Enpowerment is defined as?
Process where a leader shares power with others or enable them to act.
The basis for transformatinal leadership
Envolves helping people realize that they have skills needed to cope successfully with given situations, people, or events.
John Van Maurik views enpowerment as a mixture of three factors when assigning task to subordinates?
1. direction
2. Challenge
3. Autonomy/support
How do you empower others?
Encourage others to have imput in decisions
Ask questions instead of giving directions.
Share your pride
When things go poorly- focus on improving the situation rahter than dealing with errors.
Give recognition to the improvments when needed.
Role of a good follower?
Invest yourself
Clearly ID your responsibilities.
Clearly ID your expectations of the leader.
Support you leader and your group.
Provide stimulation for your leader and group.
Follow channels of communication.