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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Maslow's Heirarchy of needs
1. Physiological (Food, Water, Sex)
2. Safety (Shelter)
3. Social (Belonging, Friendship, Love)
4. Ego (Self-esteem, Self-importance)
5. Self-actualization
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Organizations want to motivate you to:
Join them
Stay with them
Show up regularly
Do stuff
Become stewards
Organizations set goals for you that are:
Okay with you (co-designed)
Not too easy but not too hard (reasonable)
Easy to observe and evaluate (measurable)
Will effort lead to performance?
Expectancy- increased expectancy = increased motivation
Will performance result in outcome?
Instrumentality- increased instrumentality = increased performance
Will outcome be valuable?
valence- increased valence = increased performance
Continuous reinforcement schedule
every behavior gets a reinforcer
Fixed Interval reinforcement schedule
every nth time period gets a reinforcer
Variable Interval reinforcement schedule
on avg every nth time period gets a reinforcer
Fixed Ratio reinforcement schedule
every nth unit gets a reinforcer
Variable Ratio reinforcement schedule
on avg every nth unit gets a reinforcer
4 options when an inequity is against you:
You raise your outcomes
You reduce your inputs
Other’s raise inputs
Reduce other’s outcomes
Barriers to interpersonal communication:
Limited frame of reference
Lack of language skills
Lack of listening skills
Emotional influence
Physical distractions
How to overcome barriers to interpersonal communication:
Realize that communication is imperfect
Adapt the message to the receiver
Improve your listening and language skills
Question your preconceptions
Plan for feedback
Realize that communication is 2 way, not 1
Barriers to the flow of information in organizations:
Closed communication climate
Top heavy organizational structure
Long lines of communication
Lack of trust between management and employees
Competition for power, status, rewards
Fear of reprisal for honest communication
Differing frames of reference among communicators
Lack of communication skills
Ego involvement
Overcoming barriers to communication in organizations:
Open environment for interaction/ feedback
Flatten organizational structure.
Promote horizontal communication.
Allow for anonymous feedback.
Information through formal channels
Train managers/employees in good communication skills
Equal rewards for individual and team achievements
Types of written formal communication:
memos, letters, annual reports, newsletter, bulletin board postings, employee manual
types of oral formal communication
telephone, face-to-face conversation, meetings
types of electronic/ interactive formal communication
e-mail, voicemail, instant messaging, Intranet, Internet, Extranet, videoconferencing, teleconferencing
Oral Communication advantages
Immediate feedback, nonverbal clues
Written communication advantages
Documentation, careful/ thoughtful
List the 4 steps of the listening process:
Why is listening so hard?
People only retain about 25% of the info
Ignore/ forget or miss about 75% of info
People talk at about 125-250 words per minute
People think at 1000-3000 words per minute – brain is 10 X faster than mouth
Listening process mental barriers:
frame of reference
closed mindedness
Listening process physical barriers:
Hearing impairment
Noisy surroundings
Speaker’s appearance
Speaker’s mannerisms
Lag time
Improving workplace listening involves:
Stop talking
Control external and internal distractions
Become actively involved
Practice empathy
Separate facts from opinions
Identify important facts
Ask clarifying questions:
paraphrase to increase understanding.
Capitalize on lag time
Take notes to ensure retention.
Be aware of gender differences.
Forms of non verbal communication:
eye contact
facial expression
posture and gestures
appearance of people
appearance of documents
Non verbal communication
includes all unwritten and unspoken messages, both intentional and unintentional.
Functions of non verbal communication:
To complement and illustrate
To reinforce and accentuate
To replace and substitute
To control and regulate
To contradict
Group power:
Choosing members: qualities, flexible, similar
Cost of joining: high costs
What groups do:
instruct, monitor, reward, punish, communicate to deviants, raise the cost of membership
Conformity, satisfaction and outcomes
Conformity leads to its own reward
(Over)satisfied groups under perform (satisficing)
(Over)conforming groups under perform (groupthink)
Why form teams and groups to make decisions?
Better decisions
Faster response
Increased productivity
Greater “buy-in”
Less resistance to change
Improved employee morale
Reduced risks
Four phases of team development:
Cognitive group conflict
Centers on issues; stimulates discussion
Healthy and functional
Affective group conflict
Centers on personalities, not issues
Disruptive, dysfunctional
Task roles
Roles that group members assume which help the group meet goals
Example task roles:
Initiator- problem definer
Information seeker/giver- ask for/ gives information
Opinion seeker/giver- ask for/ gives opinions
Direction giver- tells how to perform tasks
Summarizer- review progress of group
Reality tester- can group’s ideas work?
Relationship roles
Roles that group members assume which ensure that the group functions smoothly.
Example relationship roles
Participation encourager- involves silent members
Harmonizer- resolves problems
Praise giver- gives praise
Empathic listener- silently intent
Dysfunctional roles
roles that group members assume which disrupt group functioning and hurt group performance
Examples of dysfunctional roles
Blocker- not open to other’s ideas
Attacker- criticizes others
Recognition-seeker- self absorbed
Joker- wastes everyone’s time
Withdrawer- can’t be drawn in
Methods for reaching group decisions:
Authority rule with discussion
Legitimate source of management power
Authority: orders, direction, tasks
Reward type of management power
Rewards: $ raise, promotion, good tasks
Coercive management style
Punishment: no raise, terminate, bad tasks
Referent Management style
Appeal: Personal characteristics
Expert management style
Leaders rely too much on:
legitimate , reward , coercive power
Great leaders:
Lack ego
Demonstrate humility
Surround themselves with the right people
Highly capable
Situational Leadership Model
analyze and adapt
If job is structured: no intrinsic value...
Use consideration (concern for people)
If job is non-structured: has intrinsic value
Use initiation (concern for work)
List the 5 steps of the decision making process
Reasons for decision
Barriers to Effective Decision-Making
Bad intelligence
View in one-dimension
Dream team syndrome
Dumb and Dumber