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125 Cards in this Set

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What is a project?
endeavor to accomplish a specific job through set of interrelated tasks & effective utilization of resources
What is the hierarchy of project terms?
Program - series of projects
Project - obj
Sub-project - units of project
Work package - work scope
Tasks/Activities - element of work
Sub-tasks - units of task
What is TRW Bearings, Inc.
heavy manuf

mid/late 80s

aircraft bearings
What were the objectives of the TRW project?
improve inspection by 50% within 3 years

save plant within one year
What are the 4 phases to a project?
Identify Need - RFP

Solution - Proposal

Perform - Contract Progress Reports

Terminate - Final Report
Was the problem at TRW the manufacturing process or the inspectors?
inspectors
What are the 3 main components of the project?
scope

schedule

cost
What are the project attributes?
Objective - expected result
Tasks - unit of work
Resources - people, material
Time Frame - life span
Customer - funding
Stakeholder - interest
What is the project management process?
Planning -
1. Define objective
2. Divide into work packages
3. Define tasks by work packages
4. Nework Diagram
5. Time estimate
6. Cost estimate
7. Schedule & Budget
- Roadmap
What is the ultimate goal?
commitment
What are some identifiers of a troubled project?
mis-identified problem

not all stakeholders on board

under/over estimate budget
What were some decisions for TRW?
human better than machine

focused on inspection standards

job support

training
What is scope?
work that needs to be done to satisfy customers
What is cost?
amount customer agrees for deliverables or time
What is schedule?
timetable of activities
What is customer satisfaction?
client's "subjective" perception of scope completed over time
What is the project attribute - uncertainty?
due to assumptions, estimates & dynamic environment
What is the socio-technical approach?
benchmarking
strategic planning
management intervention
labor relations
JIT
ergonomics
What are the benefits of project management?
satisfied customer

job satisfaction

new knowledge/skills

additional work/profits
What is the Center for Industrial Effectiveness?
business & engineering schools work together

help companies increase competitiveness & accelerate economic development
What was the result for TRW?
6 month turnaround
Who was involved with "center for industrial effectiveness?"
TRW, Dunlop, Motorola, General Mills
What are some economic variables?
improved competitiveness

job retention

facilities expansion

job creation
What are the benefits to having a team?
decision quality

commitment

flexibility

complexity
What are th costs to working with a team?
*TIME*

individual expertise masked, riskier, compromises
What determines an effective team?
team skills

clear purpose/customer expectations

team self assessment
What is the request for proposal?
state comprehensively what is required from the customer's POV
What is the sociotechnical model of a work system?
*External Environment
Personnel
Technical
Internal Environment
Organization & Management Structure
What are the internal sources of project objectives?
management

employees

performance results
What are the external sources of project objectives?
customer feedback

management

political
Why use consultants?
External: objective, outsource, additional manpower

Internal: technical expertise, additional manpower, mandated
What are most projects formed for?
WANTS
How do you select a project?
1. Develop guidelines
2. List assumptions
3. Gather Data & Info
4. Evaluate each opportunity
What is an "unsolicited" proposal?
used in the military

no one asked for the proposal

tell them what you'll do and at what cost
How do you decide to bid?
stability of company

potential for future projects

liklihood of winning
What phase is professionalism & ethics essential?
needs identification
What is sole source?
no competition
What is costshare?
you must provide percentage of own money
What should be considered in a bid/no-bid decision?
competition (internal/external)
risk (financial & other)
mission
extension of capabilities
reputation
customer funds
proposal resources
project resources
What happened in the Boeing example?
did not win RFP

wired project: incumbent got work

$1.5M on proposal

not a failure, larger project, got name out there
Explain the matrix organization
Instructor at top
Advisors along left side
Clients inside
What are some suggestions for managing multiple customers?
maintain open communication

respect diversity

respect schedules
What should be considered in company work rules?
Obey facility safety: equip & products

Respect worker obligations: breaks, shifts
What are the contents of the proposal?
technical section

management section

cost section

appendices
What does the technical section do?
convince customer the contractor understands problem and can provide least risky/most beneficial solution
What is the purpose of the management section?
convince customer you can do the proposed work and achieve intended results
What is the objective of the cost section?
convince the customer that the contractor's price for project is realistic and reasonable
What is the purpose of the appendices?
supporting data & info
What is included in the technical section?
1. Objectives: scoping agreement
2. Proposed approach/solution: relevant courses, data collected/analyzed, methods to be used, WBS, rationale, confirmation
3. Benefits: qual/quant performance criteria
Describe the management section of the proposal
1. Description of work tasks: task list
2. Deliverables: milestone log
3. Project Schedule: Tasks & milestones, Gantt Chart
4. Project Organization: Resp matrix
5. Related Experience
6. Equip, software, facilities
What should be included in the hypothetical/actual budget?
labor, materials, consultants, equip/software, travel, documentation, overhead, escalation, contingency, fee/profit, total
What should be included in the attachments?
executed scoping/confidentiality agreement

team bios/resumes

budget detail

trip reports: plant visits/advisor mtgs
What are some characteristics of general management?
routine

repetitive

work never done

controlled environment
What are some characteristics of project management?
unique

single objective

defined start/end

get done & move to next challenge
in project management, achievement =
completion of project
What are everyday examples of general/project management?
post office

construction
What is the scoping agreement?
define expectation of project's work

agreement between customer/supplier

creates boundaries & constraints
What is the task list?
identify activities needed to achieve objectives (durations/outcomes)

milestone - significant event

Format:
TASK DURATION MILESTONE
What is the milestone log?
physical evidence of progress, dates, person responsible

tangible "products"

Format:
MILESTONE DESC PERSON DUE DATE
What is the WBS?
work breakdown structure

group tasks into logical clusters & identify subtasks

<10 tasks/subtasks at level

Levels: 0, 1 (Main), 2 (Subtasks)
What is the Gantt Chart?
schedule tasks/milestones in sequence, portray WBS task duration, manage performance
What is the Responsibility Matrix?
identify task/milestone responsibility

task on y axis

personnel on x axis

assign roles
What is the budget?
estimate dollar cost associated with doing project

junior - 50/100/hr
senior - 800/1000/day

escalation = 6%/year
contingency = "hitting rock"
What was referred to as a "Wide Right" in project management?
Kent Square

"face validity" - appeared to be good project
Categorizing Proposal Sections
customer wants - t, m
can perform work - t, m
will provide value - c
qualified - m
experienced - m
perform professionally - m
achieve results - c
budget/schedule - m, c
satisfy customer - m
Which type of contract is high risk for consultant?
fixed - price
Classify the risks associated with types of contracts
Customer/Contractor
Fixed Price: Low/High
Cost Reimbursable: High/Low
What is a work package?
lowest level item in branch (WBS)
WBS Levels
2 or 3

not too much detail, held accountable
Levels of WBS
Top level: program/project WBS

Expanded: Contract WBS
What are the different types of contracts?
fixed-price
cost-reimbursable
hybrid***SENIOR DESIGN
task-order (BOA) (VT/NASA)
Purchase Order
Grant
What are some cost reimbursable contract provisions?
1. misrep of costs
2. notice of overruns/delays
3. approval of subcontractor
4. customer furnished equip
5. patents
6. disclosure proprietary info
7. int'l considerations
8. termination
9. terms of payment
10. bonus/penalty payments
11. changes
12. publication rights
What is IRB?
Institutional Review Board - protection system

university/college review committee

ensure welfare of ppl in projects

"corporate shield" against liability
Describe research taxonomy
Theory, knowledge acquisition, knowledge transfer, practice
What is consulting?
act of giving out, sharing knowledge for purpose of facilitating change
What is "the Belmont Report?"
ethical principles and guidelines for protection of human subjects of research
What are the basic ethical principles?
respect for persons

beneficence

justice
What is included in the monthly progress report?
1. Accomplishments since prior report: milestones reached, progress
2. Current status of proj perf: cost, schedule, work scope (WBS)
3. Progress resolving "challenges": tech, mgmt, cost
4. New "challenges": " "
5. Planned Corrective Actions: res matrix, statement of objectives
6. Milestones expected: milestone, optimistic conclusion
What is the optimum process for acquisition of process?
balance requirements & capabilities
What is phase 1 of the acquistion process?
REQUIREMENTS

want vs. need, political support, can industry build, technology exist?, marketing to buyer
What is phase 2?
BIDS & PROPOSALS

comm btwn buyer/seller controlled
What are the 4 ways for the buyer to talk to the seller?
RFI - how fast

RFP (draft)

RFP - how fast & cost

RFQ - we want fast, what will it cost?
What are ways for the seller to communicate with the buyer?
bidder's questions

bidder's conference

both venues
What is the 3rd phase?
EVALUATION

no comm between buyer/seller

buyer has teams of ppl mirroring sellers teams
What is the 4th phase?
AWARD

disclose decn factors
What is the last phase?
PERFORMANCE/DELIVERY
What is planning?
systematic arrangement of tasks to accomplish objective
What is the current philosopical approach?
project & business planning
Explain Art vs Science
"Science" - maximize control, strategic planning

"Art" - minimize control, de-engineering

In between - policy deployment, MBGA, project management
What are traditional planning characteristics?
roadmap, systematic, vision-driven, optimal path

GE invented formal planning in 60s
Describe the Fallacies

predetermination, detachment, formalization
...
What is "SWOT?"
Strengths
Weaknesses
Opportunities
Threats
Describe the dynamic approach
well defined obj, principles driven, clear milestones, cont eval, adaptive strategies, project control
Describe the traditional approach
vision, mission, milestones, strategies
Why are progress reports important?
uncertainty minimized

consulting team on track

management doesn't like surprises
Describe Plan/Implementation
See chart
What is NEAR?
Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous

Tom Coughlin - blind
NASA Plan - study asteroids

faster, better, cheaper (came in under budget)
What skills identify a project manager?
leadership
communication
interpersonal skills
conflict resolution
stress management
problem - solving
time management
delegation/develop people
manage change
what football player was project management compared to?
quarterback


works with team
not on sideline
What is a nominal group?
group in name only
What is the 9 step problem solving process?
1. problem stmt
2. ID causes of problem
3. gather data/ID causes
4. ID possible solutions
5. evaluate alternatives
6. determine best solution
7. revise plan
8. implement
9. determine whether problem solved
What is the developmental cycle?
forming

storming

norming

performing
Describe a cross-functional team
Chairman of Board
Vice Chairman of Board/CEO
Prez & COO
all equal under: cross functional team: doesn't "formally exist", VP, VP, VP
What is a self-managed team?
*senior design teams*

Chairman of the board
Vice Chairman of Board & CEO
Prez & COO
SMT1, 2, 3, 4...

has authority to make decisions
Impace on Organization
see notes
What are the 3 types of decisions?
1: you (crises)
* most * 2: you & them
3: them (commitment needed)
What are the types of management conflict?
avoiding, competing, accommodating, compromising, collaborating
Why use software?
better plan
calc projections easier
what if scenarios
inconsistencies/problems
communication
progress/issues
what is pre-planning?
1. customize project's calendar of working time
2. enter project basics (title, team name, manager, objective, start/finish)
Explain indentation of tasks/subtasks
"demoted" = indented
"promoting" = outdented
Explain how to prepare the schedule in MS PROJECT
order tasks in logical order

precendence, concurrent, start/finish
What are the industry lessons learned?
use the right team for the right tasks

design authority

resolve conflicts
Describe the usage of teams in North America
Work Groups 19% (individual/dept)
CFT 72% (cost functional team)
SMT 8% (self managed teams)
Virtual 1% (form of SMT, increasing)
What are status review meetings?
accomplishments since last meeting
cost, schedule, work scope
corrective actions
opps for improvement
action item assignment
What are problem solving meetings?
develop problem
identify cause
gather data/verify
solutions
best solution
revise plan
implement
verify
What are technical design review meetings?
preliminary design review mtg

final design review mtg
Describe distributed teams & meetings
see chart in notes
Describe the multiple dimensional model for group support systems
Dimensions
1: level of support for comm process
2: decision making process
3: sense of presence
What is presence support?
capacity of system to transfer subtle verbal/non verbal communicative signals

cell phone example
What are some issues with cross-cultural distributed meetings?
delays
rate of speech
use of culture specific jargon
non verbal cues
pacing
Hostile Questions
maintain composure

don't repeat hostility

refute assumptions

ignore negatives
Speculative
answer if response is known & risk free
Hypothetical Questions
answer directly

point out hypothetical nature

insert key message
Leading Questions
agree/disagree

note that it is leading

challenge/question

ignore and "sell" theme
Multidimensional Questions
answer fully if possible

"forget" dimensions