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90 Cards in this Set

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Human resources
the activities managers perform to plan for, attract, and retain an effective workforce
human capital
the economic or productive potential of an employee or employee knowledge
--vitally important to a companys competitve advantage
strategic human resources planning
develop a systematic, comprehensive stratgey for understand employees needs and predicting future employees needs
job analysis
determine the basic elements of a job
job description
a few paragraphs about the specifics of a job, responsibilites of job holder and why
job specification
specific qualities to get the job
predicting future employees
the managers needs a good understand of what kind of personell the organization might need and likely sources for that personell
human resource inventory
tracks employees name, education, langage and other important info which is used when considering inside employees for future new positions
recruitment
the process of locating and attracting qualified applications for jobs open
internal recruitment
making people already employed aware of job openings
external recruiting
attracting job applicatants from outside the company
most effect source of external recruiting
referrals
realistic job previews
employee canidates are given both the positive and negative aspects of the job and the organization before being hired
selection process
the process of screening job applicants and picking the best person for the job
3 types of selection tools
background, interviewing, and employment test
background
application forms and resumes are basic source of information about job applicants
interview
can be unstructured (asking probing questions to find out about the person
or
structured (asking the same question to all applicants then comparing answers)
3 types of employment test
ability, perfomance, personality
ability test
--employment test

-measures physical abilites, strength, stamina
performance test
measures performance on actual job tasks
personality tests
measures personality traits like adjustment, energy, stability, independece..using tests like the Myers-Briggs assesment
orientation
helping newcomers fit smoothly into their job and organization
training
educating technical and operational employees how to better do their current jobs
development
educating professionals and managers in skills they need to do their job in the future
5 steps in the training process
1.) assessment
2.) Objective
3.) selection
4.) implementation
5.) Evaluating
assessment training process
is training needed?

--look at the skills people have and the skills people need for the job
objective training process
what should the training achieve?
---face to face? off the job training (classroom setting, videotapes) or computer training
selection training process
which training methods should i use?
implementation training process
how should training be effected?
evaluating training process
is the training working?
--watch peoples job performances and do testing; then make changes if goals are not accomplished
performance appraisal
tells employees how their doing (feedback)
two types of apprasial
objective and subjective
objective apprasial
facts and numbers, generally upper management gets report of these
subjective apprasial
attitudes/behaviors/inititative/traits--based on managers perceptions so the managers have to have backup as proof to what they say--document actual events
compensation
tied to the apprasial and performance system
--deciding who to promote, transfer or dismiss
--at the end of the assesment you give them a rating and make sure they are compensated to the rating
promotion
managers can recognize an employees superior performance
transfer
when an employee is moved to a different job with similar responsibility
total compensation package
-wages/salary
-incentives, bonuses
-benefits
wages/salary
basic wage or salary paid to employee in exchange for doing their job
incentives
-bonsus
-comissions, profit-sharing plans, stock options
benefits
additional, non-monetary forms of compensation: health insurance, retirement plans, and family leave
layoffs
a temporary dismissal
downsizing/firing
permanent
Social securities act of 1935
social security and benefits
the Fair Labor Standards act 1938
established a minimum wage and overtime pay regulations and a minimum standard of living for workers
Wagner Act of 1935
laws relating to unions
--allows president to stop a strik if it threatens national security
1970 OSHA
occupational safety and health act
--established a minimum health and safety standard in organizations
Civil Rights Act 1964/1972
prohibits discrimination on basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex
American Disabilites Act
prohibits discrimination against essentially qualified employees with disabilities
2003-sarbanes oxley act
prohibits employees from demoting or firing employees who raise accusations of fraud to a federal agency
Equal opportunity
best person gets the job
Affirmative Action
to keep one group from rising to the top
--focuses on achieving equality of opportunity within an organization
stress
the tension people feel when they are facing or enduring extraordinary demands, constraints or opportunities and are uncertian about their ability to handle them differently
stressors
the source of stress
-hassles
-crises
-extreme physical comfort
Type A Person
very organizated, task focused
Type B person
very laidbaid, more analytical
--more likely to become a CEO because their easy to work with, not busy charging forward and less apt to burn themselves out
6 sources of stress on the job
1.) demands created by individual differences (may rise from type A person)
2.) individual task demands (stress created by job itself)
3.) group demands ( stress created by co-workers or managers)
4.) individual role demands (stress created by other peoples expectations of you)
5.) organizational demands (stresses created by enviornment and culture of the organization
6.) non-work demands--stresses created by forces outside the organization
positive stress
can be constructive
negative stress
can be harmful, (burnt out state of mind, mental and even physical exhaustion)
--shows up physiologically, psychologically and behaviorally
buffers
administrative changes to reduce the stressors that lead to employee burnout (typically managers)

--managers can create a supportive organizational climate, make jobs interesting, carear counseling
why is motivation important?
so that employees are compelled to work above and beyond expectations
motivation
the psychological process that arouse and direct goal-oriented behavior
intrinsic reward
the satisfaction, accomplishment, that a person recieves from performing a particular task itself
extrinisic reward
the payoff a person recieves from others for performing a particular task
4 perspectives of motivation
1.) content
2.) process
3.) job design
4.) reinforcement
content perspecitve of motivation
the needs to motivate people
-maslows hierarchy of needs, (McClelland's Acquried need theory, Herzberg's 2 factor theory)
process perspective of motivation
how employees behave to meet their needs-- the thought process in which people decide how to act
needs
psychological or physological deficiencies that arouse behavior
3 process perspectives on motivation
expectancy theory, equity theory, goal oriented theory
expectancy theory
How much they want something and how likely they are to get it
--expectancy: probability that effort will lead to performance
--instrumentanlty- probability that a given amount of effort will lead to certain outcomes (will that lead to rewards)
--valence -the probability that i will get the reward and i will like it
job design perspective of motivation
fit the jobs to the people (it's this way today)
-designing a job correctly will affect the type and level of outcome that is neceassry in encouraging empployees
reinforcement perspective of motivation
explains behavior changes by suggesting tthat behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated whereas behavior with negative consequences tends to not be repeated (positive, negative, extincition, punishment)
equity theory of process perspective of motivation
how fairly do you think you're being treated compared to others
--motivation is based on a persons assessment of the ratio of outcome rewards he recieves for input of a job compared w/ the same ratio for a comparison other

--my outputs/ my inputers = others outcomes/others inputs
goal setting theory of process perspective of motivation
suggests that employees can be motivated by goals are specific and challanging but achievable
SMART goals
specific
measurable
attainable
realistic
time specific
job simplification
the number of tasks a worker performs is reduced to improve productivity
5 core job characteristics
1.) skill variety-how many different skills does this job require
2.) task identity-how extensive is my role as part of a whole project
3.) task signifiance-how many others are affected by what i do
4.) Autonomy- how much decision making do i have
5.) feedback-how much do i know about how I'm doing
negative conflict
aka dysfunctional
--hinders the organizations performance or threatens interest
reinforcement
anything that causes a behavior to be repeated or inhibited
conflict
a process in which one party percieves that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party
constructive conflict
fractional/cooperative
--benefits the main purposes of the organization and serves its interests
organizations with little conflict
are apathetic, lack creativity, indecisive and miss deadlines
firms with too much conflict
are poor performers because of the poitical infighting, dissatsifcation and lack of teamwork
7 causes of conflict
1.) competiion for scarce resources
2.) time pressure
3.) inconsistent goals or reward system
4.) ambiguous juristictions
5.) status differences
6.) personality clashes
7.) communcation faliures
inconsistent goals or reward system--reason of conflict
conflict can rise when people are pursuing different objectives
ambiguous jursidictions--reason of conflict
when task responsibilites are unclear, conflict can emerge and people fight over resources and tasks
3 devices to stimulate constructive conflict
1.) spurring competition for employees (to encourage competition companies offer bonuses, trips)
2.) changing the organizations culture and procedurs (by making announcements about new policies and revamping procedures)
3.) bringin in outsiders for new perspectives (without new people companies become complacant to change
dialetic method
--used to obtain different opinions without eliciting personal feelings
---two people or groups play opposing roles in a debate to better understand a proposal
McCelland's aquired needs theory
need for achievement, need for afiliation and need for power
Herzbergs 2 factor theory
focuses on the rewards or outcomes of performance that satisfy peoples needs
--theres job satisfiers and job dissatisfiers (hygenes) must eliminate all dissatisfiers