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326 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
_____ are individuals who get things done through other people.
Managers
Which French industrialist said that a manager's functions consist of planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling?
Henri Fayol
In the early part of the 20th century, _______ wrote that all managers perform five management functions. These five management functions are the basis of the modern concept of four management functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
\
Henri Fayol
Through the _____ function, managers monitor the performance of the organization and significant deviations.
controlling
_____ is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations.
Organizational Behavior
_____ involves looking at relationships, attempting to attribute cause and effects, and drawing conclusions based on systematic evidence.
systematic study
Individuals who achieve goals thorugh other people.
Managers
A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
Organization
A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.
Planning
Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who report to whom, and where decisions are to be made.q
Organizing
A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.
Leading
Monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations.
Controlling
The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise.
Technical Skills
The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups.
Human Skills
The mental ability to analyze and diagnose comoplex sitations.
Conceptual Skills
A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization's effectiveness.
Organizational Behavior
Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence.
Systematic Study
A gut feeling not necessarily supported by research.
Intuition
The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.
Psychology
An area w/in psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another.
Social Psychology
The study of people in relation to their social environment or culture.
Sociology
The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
Anthropology
Situational factors: variables that moderate the relationship between two or more other variables.
Contingency Variables
The concept that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and inclusion of other diverse groups.
Workforce Diversity
Putting employees in charge of what they do.
Empowering Employees
Situations in which individuals are required to define right and wrong conduct.
Ethical Dilemmas
An abstraction of reality. A simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon.
Model
A response that is affected by an independent variable.
Dependent Variable
A performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency.
Productivity
Achievement of goals.
Effectiveness
The ratio of effective output to the input required to achieve it.
Efficiency
The failure to report to work.
Absenteeism
The voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization
Turnover
Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members.
Deviant workplace behavior
Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee's formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior(OCB)
A positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
Job Satisfaction
The presumed cause of some change in the dependent variable.
Independent Variable
Symbolic head; required to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature.
Figurehead
Responsible for the motivation and direction of employees.
Leader
Maintains a network of outside contacts who provide favors and information
Liason
Figurehead, Leader, Liason are all what role?
Interpersonal
Receives wide variety of information; serves as nerve center of internal and external information of the organization.
Monitor
Transmits information received from outsiders or from other employees to members of the organization.
Disseminator
Transmits information to outsiders an organization's plans, policies, actions, and resluts; serves as expert on organization's industry
Spokesperson
Monitor, Disseminator and Spokesperson are all what role?
Informational
Searches organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change.
Entrepreneur
Responsible for corrective action when organization faces important, unexpected disturbances.
Disturbance handler
Makes or approves significant organizational decisions.
Resource Allocator
Responsible for representing the organization at major negotiations.
Negotiator
Entrepreneur, Disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator are all what role?
Decisional
Robert Katz has identified three essential ____ skills: technical, human, and conceptual.
Management Skills
Defined in terms of the speed of promotion within their organization; networking made the largest relative contribution to sucess and human resource mangement activities made the largest relative contribution.
Successful Managers
Defined in terms of the quantity and quality of their performance and the satisfaction and commitment of their employees; communication made the largest relative contribution and networking the least.
Effective Managers
studied management roles, which he grouped under the headings of interpersonal roles, informational roles, and decisional roles.
Henry Mintzberg
identified the three essential management skills as technical, human, and conceptual.
Robert Katz
Found that managers all engage in four managerial activies: traditional management, communication, human resource management and networking.
Fred Luthans
What are the 5 functions of management suggested by Henri Fayol?
planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling.
Burger King is owned by a firm located in _____.
England
While a call center employee in the U.S. might make $20,000 per year, an employee can be hired in India for about _____.
$2500
American jobs are increasingly exported to all of the following countries EXCEPT _____.
Germany
_____ means that organizations are becoming a more heterogeneous mix of people in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation.
Workforce Diversity
Which of the following best reflects the "melting pot" assumption?
Diversity will contribute positively to organizational decision making.
____ can be created through helping employees to improve their people skills, empowering them to make their own decisions, and helping employees to quickly respond to organizational change.
customer responsive culture
Which of the following is NOT identified as a primary challenge for managers?
Employees will become more willing to embrace the mainstream American culture.
By 2050, Hispanics will constitute _____ of the workforce
24%
In the United States, _____ of the workforce is employed in service industries.
80%
Beginning in 2007, there will be a major exodus of Baby Boomers from the workforce and ______ fewer Gen-Xers to replace them.
10million
In organizations such as Marriott, W.L. Gore, and National Westminster Bank, employees are referred to as ______.
Associates
Increasingly, managers are _____ employees, putting employees in charge of what they do.
empowering
Which is an example of a company that died because it did not adequately respond to change?
Montgomery Ward
Today's managers must learn to cope with _____, as jobs are continually redesigned; tasks are increasingly being done by flexible teams rather than individuals; and jobs are being subcontracted to other firms.
Temporariness
Over a recent ten year period, the average American workweek increased from _____ to ______ hours.
43, 47
Situations in which one is required to define right and wrong are known as _____.
Ethical Dilemmas
The accounting equation, Assets = Liabilities + Owner's Equity, is an example of a(n) _____.
Model
The primary dependent variables in organizational behavior have been productivity, absenteeism, turnover, and job satisfaction. More recently, _____ and _____ have been added to the list.
Deviant workplace behavior, organizational citizenship
Which of the following is NOT an individual level independent variable?
Productivity
A(n) _____ is the presumed cause of change in an outcome.
independent variable
the key dependent variables in the model of organizational behavior are...
productivity, absenteeism, turnover, deviant workplace behavior, organizational citizenship behavior, and job satisfaction
occur at the level of the individual, group, and organization.
Independent Variables
Which of the following best defines a model?
a simplified representation of a real-world phenomena
Productivity implies a concern for _____ and _____.
efficiency, effectiveness
A product that successfully meets the needs of its clientele is _____.
effective
The average direct cost to U.S. businesses per day of unscheduled absences is ___ per employee.
$789
__________is the permanent withdrawal of an employee from an organization.
Turnover
What is the U.S. national turnover average?
36%
_____ is voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms.
Deviant workplace behavior
_____ includes helping others on their team, volunteering for extra work, avoiding unnecessary conflicts, respecting the unwritten rules of the organization, and gracefully tolerating occasional work-related impositions and nuisances.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Job satisfaction is negatively related to _____ and _____.
absenteeism, turnover
Which of the following is NOT a type of independent variable?
environmental level
Which type of variables are used in a contingency framework?
situational
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of physical ability?
Looks
The relationship between _____ and job performance is likely to be an issue of growing importance during the next decade.
age
According to your text, which is the most likely explanation for the higher absentee rate for women?
Traditionally, women have had the responsibility of caring for home and family.
_____ is the learning concept of reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the desired new behavior.
Shaping
An example of _____ is when an employee receives a one-week suspension from work and is fined $200 for stealing company property.
punishment
Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining an unwanted behavior is called _____.
extinction
All of the following are TRUE about both positive and negative reinforcement EXCEPT:
Both positive and negative reinforcement tend to weaken behavior and decrease it subsequent frequency.
A slot machine is an example of _____ reinforcement.
intermittent
For a salesperson who is paid commission, reinforcement occurs on a _____ schedule.
Variable-ratio
The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting is referred to as _____.
Behavior Modification
Ability is the assessment of an employee's motivation.
False
n individual's overall abilities are essentially made up of two sets of factors: intelligence and physical abilities.
True
Personal characteristics that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records (such as age, sex, and marital status) are termed biographical characteristics.
False
Working mothers are more likely to prefer part-time work, flexible schedules, and telecommuting.
True
Learning consists of any relatively temporary change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
False
Your supervisor has explained that he will positively reward those who take extra effort to see that their jobs are done well. You should suspect he has read the work of B.F. Skinner.
True
One method of shaping behavior is called positive reinforcement and refers to a response being followed with something unpleasant.
False
Both punishment and extinction weaken behavior and tend to reduce its subsequent frequency.
True
OB Mod has been used by a number of organizations to improve employee productivity; to reduce errors, absenteeism, tardiness, and accident rates; and to improve friendliness towards custo
True
Punishing or disciplining employees is very effective in producing long-term change in behavior.
False
Microsoft and Amazon.com consider which characteristic _____ most predictive of job performance.
intelligence
Which of the following is NOT considered a biographical characteristic?
intelligence
Which of the following statement about older workers is most accurate?
Older workers are less likely to quit a job.
Which of the following statements about gender differences is most accurate?
Women are more likely to conform to authority, while men are more likely to have expectations of success.
Which variable has the most explanatory potential for absence behavior?
tenure
An individual's capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.
Ability
The capacity to do mental activities- thinking, reasoning, and problem solving.
Intellectual Abilities
Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural
Multiple Intelligences
The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.
Physical Ability
Personal characteristics-- such as age, gender, race, and length of tenure-- that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records.
Biographical Characteristics
Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
Learning
A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response.
Classical Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.
Operant Conditioning
A theory which argues that behavior follows stimuli in relatively unthinking manner.
Behaviorism
the view that people can learn through observation and direct experience.
Social-Learning Theory
Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response.
Shaping Behavior
Reinforcing a desired behavior each time is it demonstrated.
Continuous Reinforcement
Reinforcing a desired behavior often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.
Intermittent Reinforcement
Spacing rewards at uniform time intervals.
Fixed-interval schedule
Distributing rewards in time so that reinforcements are unpredictable.
Variable-Interval Schedule
Initiating rewards after a fixed or constant number of responses.
Fixed-ratio schedule
Varying the reward relative to the behavior of the individual.
Variable-ratio schedule
The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting.
OB Mod
Number aptitude, verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, spatial visualization, and memory comprise...
Intellectual Ability
stamina, manual dexterity, leg strength, and similar talents are all...
Physical Abilities
employees with greater tenure are more ____ and experience ______ than their less tenured counterparts.
productive;fewer absences
_____ refers to an individual's capacity to perform the tasks in a job.
Skill
The Wonderlic Personnel Test measures _____.
Intelligence
_____ intelligence refers to a person's ability to relate effectively to others.
Social
_____ intelligence refers to a person's ability to identify, understand, and manage emotions.
Emotional
Which of the following statements about ability job-fit is MOST accurate?
Employee performance is enhanced when there is a high ability-job fit.
The Department of Education classifies individuals according to five racial categories. Which is NOT one of those categories?
European
Which of the following statements about tenure is MOST accurate.
Tenure is a good predictor of productivity.
_____ is associated with the theory of operant conditioning.
B.F. Skinner
There are four processes that have been found to determine the influence that a model (such as a parent, peer, or television performer) will have on an individual. Because of _____ processes, individuals will be motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided.
reinforcement
The meat was an ______; it invariably caused the dog to react in a specific way.
unconditioned stimulus
The reaction that took place whenever the unconditioned stimulus occured is...
unconditioned response
Christmas carols often bring back pleasant memories of childhood. This is an example of _____.
Classica conditioning
The concept of operant conditioning was part of B. F. Skinner's broader concept of _____.
Behaviorism
Although social-learning theory is an extension of operant conditioning, it also acknowledges the existence of observational learning and the importance of _____ in learning.
Perception
There are four processes that have been found to determine the influence that a model (such as a parent, peer, or television performer) will have on an individual. Because of _____ processes, a model's influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the model's actions after the model is no longer readily available.
Retention
Both ratio and interval are forms of _____ reinforcement.
Intermittent
_____ is also popularly referred to as OB Mod.
Behavior Modification
evaluative statements-- either favorable or unfavorable-- concerning objects, people or events; reflect how one feels about something
Attitudes
What are the main compnents of attitudes?
Cognitive component, affective component, behavioral component
The opinion or belief segment of an attitude.
Cognitive Component of an Attitude
The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude.
Affective component of an attitude
An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
Behavioral Component of An Attitude
Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.
Cognitive Dissonance
Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred.
Self-perception Theory
A positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
Job Satisfaction
The degree of which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth.
Job involvement
Employees' belief in the degree to which they impact their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job, and the perceived autonomy in their work
Psychological Empowerment
The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization
Organizational Commitment
An emotional attachment to the organization and a belief in its values.
Affective Commitment
The perceived economic value of remaining with an organization compared to leaving it.
Continuance Commitment
An obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons.
Normative commitment
The degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.
Perceived Organizational Support
An individual's involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work they do
Employee Engagement
Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires on how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization.
Attitude Surveys
A positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
Job Satisfaction
asks individuals to respond to one question like "how satisfied are you w/ your job" and respondents circle a number btw 1(highly satisfied) through 5(highly dissatisfied)
Single Rating System
identifies key elements in a job and asks for employees feelings on nature of work, supervision, present pay, promotion opportunities, and relations w/ coworkers; scores are rated on standardized scale and then added up for overall score
summation score
strategies that involve employees moving among several jobs on a temporary basis
Job rotation
involves the horizontal expansion of the tasks in a job; adds skills and tasks at the same level of skill and responsibility
Job envolvement
involves adding new tasks at a higher level of employee control or responsibility (a vertical expansion of the job).
Job enrichment
Dissatisfaction expressed through behavior directed toward leaving the organization.
Exit
Dissatisfaction expressed through active and constructive attempts to improve conditions.
Voice
Dissatisfaction expressed by passively waiting for conditions to improve.
Loyalty
Dissatisfaction expressed through allowing conditions to worsen.
Neglect
______closely linked to job satisfaction and implies that an employee is willing to go above and beyond job requirements through such actions as talking positively about the organization, helping others, and going beyond the normal expectations of their job.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior
the sum total of ways in whcih an individual reacts and interacts with others
Personality
Enduring characteristics that describe an individual's behavior.
Personality Traits
A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
What makes up the Big 5 Model?
Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Openness to Experience
A personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, gregarious, and assertive.
Extraversion
A personality dimension that describes someone who is good-natured, cooperative, and trusting.
Agreeableness
A personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized.
Conscientiousness
A personality dimension that characterizes someone as calm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative).
Emotional Stability
A personality dimension that characteristics someone in terms of imagination, sensitivity, and curiousity
Openness to Experience
individuals who are outgoing, sociable and assertive
Extraverts
individuals who are quiet and shy
Introverts
types that are practical and prefer routine and older; focus on detail
Sensing Types
rely on unconscious processes and look at the "big picture"
Intuitives
Use logic and reason to handle problems
Thinking Types
rely on their personal values and emotions
Feeling types
Want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured.
Judging types
People that are flexible and spontaneous.
Perceiving types
Degree to which individuals like or dislike themselves, whether they see themselves as capable and effective, and whether they feel they are in control of their environment or powerless over their environment.
Core self-evaluation
Individual's degree of liking or disliking themselves and the degree to which they think they are worthy or unworthy as a person
Self-Esteem
The degree to which people believe that they are masters of their own fate
Locus of Control
Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them.
Internals
Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.
Externals
Degree to which an individual is prgamatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.
Machiavellianism
The tendency to be arrogant, have a grandoise sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement.
Narcissism
A personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors
Self-Monitoring
Aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or other people.
Type A Personality
.... never suffer from a sense of time urgency or impatience, feel no need to display their accomplishments, play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority, can relax w/out guilt
Type B Personality
People who identity opportunities, show initiative, take action, and preserve until meaningful change occurs.
Proactiv Personality
Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.
Values
A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual's values in terms of their intensity
Values System
Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime.
Terminal Values
Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one's terminal values.
Instrumental Values
entered the workforce 1950s or early 60s; approx. 65+; hard working, conservative, conforming; loyalty to the organization
Veterans
entered workforce 1965-1985; in early 40s-mid 60s; success achievement, ambition, dislike of authority; loyalty to career
Boomers
entered workforce 1985-2000; late 20s to early 40s; work/life balance, team-oriented, dislike of rules; loyalty to relationships
Xers
entered workforce 2000-present; under 30; confident, financial success, self-reliant but team-oriented; loyalty to both self and relationship
Nexters
A national culture attribute describing the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally
Power Distance
A national culture attribute describing the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups
Individualism
A national culture attribute that describes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect then
Collectivism
A national culture attribute describing the extent to which the culture favors traditional masucline work roles of achievement, power, and control. Societal values are characterized by assertiveness and materialism.
Masculinity
A national culture attribute that has little differentiation between male and female roles, where woman are treated as the equals of men in all aspects of the society
Feminity
A national culture attribute describing the extent to whcih a society feels threatened and ambiuous situations and tries to avoid them
Uncertainty Avoidance
A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence
Long-term Orientation
A national culture attribute that emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfilling social obligations.
Short-term Orientation
The extent to which a society encourages people to be tough, confrontational, assertive, and competitive versus modest and tender
Assertiveness
The extent to which a society encourages and rewards future-oriented behaviors such as planning, investing in the future, and delaying gratification
Future Orientation
equivalent to Hofstede's longterm/shortterm orientation
Future Orientation
The extent to which a society maximizes gender role differences. This is equivalent to Hofstede's masculinity-feminity dimension.
Gender differentiation
the GLOBE team defined this term as a society's reliance on social norms and procedures to alleviate the unpredictability of future events
Uncertainty Avoidance
The GLOBE team defined this as the degree to which members of a society expect power to be unequally shared
Power Distance
the degree to which individuals are encouraged by societal institutions to be integrated into groups within organizations and society
Individualism/ Collectivism
this dimension encompasses the extent to which members of a society take pride in membership in small groups, such as their family and circle of close friends, and the organizations in which they are employed
In-group collectivism
refers to the degree to which a society encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement and excellence
Performance Orientation
the degree to which a society encourages and rewards individuals for being fair, altruistic, generous, caring and kind to others
Human Orientation
Identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover
Personality- job fit theory
he match between the person and the organization. One tool to measure this fit is the Organizational Cultural Profile. The idea behind the OCP is that employees should find an organization whose values match their own.
Person-Organization Fit
A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment
Perception
An attempt when individuals observe behavior to determine whether it is internally or externally caused
Attribution Theory
The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the inflluence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal facors while putting the blame for failures on external factors
Self-Serving Bias
whether an individual displays different situations
Distinctiveness
Everyone who faces a similar situation responds in the same way
Consensus
Does the person respond the same way over time?
Consistency
Selectively interpreting what one sees on the basis of one's interests, background, experience, and attitudes
Selective Perception
Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic
Halo Effect
Evaluation of a person's characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics
Contrast Effects
Attributing one's own characteristics to other people
Projection
Judging someone on the basis of one's perception of the group to which that person belongs
Stereotyping
a situation in which one person inaccurately perceives a second person and the reslulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consistent with the original percpetion
Self-fulfilling Prophecy
A form of sterotyping in which a group of individuals is singled out- typically on the basis of race or ethnicity- for intensive inquiry, scrutinizing, or investigation
Profiling
The choices made from among two or more alternatives
Decisions
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy is also known as...
Pygmalion Effect
A discrepancy between some current state of affairs and some desired state
Problem
Making consistent, value-maximizing choices within specified contraints
Rational
A decision-making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome
Rational Decision-Making Model
The ability to produce novel and useful ideas
Creativity
The proposition that indvidual creativity requires expertise, creative-thinking skills, and intrinsic task motivation.
Three-component model of creativity
Making decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity
Bounded Rationality
A tendency to fixate on intial information, from which we then fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information.
Anchoring Bias
The tendency to seek out information that reaffirms past choices and to discount information that contradicts past judgements
Confirmation Bias
The tendency for people to base their judgements on info. that is readily available to them
Availability Bias
Assessing the likliehood of an occurence by inappropriately considering the current situation as identical to ones in the past
Representative Bias
An increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information
Escalation of Commitment
The tendency of individuals to believe that they can predict the outcome of random events
Randomness Error
A decision-making dictum that argues that the winning participants in an auction typically pay too much for the winning team
Winner's Curse
The tendency for us to believe falsely the match between the person and the organization. One tool to measure this fit is the Organizational Cultural Profile. The idea behind the OCP is that employees should find an organization whose values match their own.
Hindsight Bias
An unconscious process created out of distilled experience
Intuitive Decision Making
Decisions made to provide the greatest good for the greatest number
Utilitarianism
Individuals who report unethical practices by their employer to outsiders
Whistle-Blowers
The processes that account for an individual's intensity, direciton, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal
Motivation
A hierarchy of 5 needs- physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization- exists such that as each need is substantialy satisfied, the next need becomes dominant
Hierarchy of needs theory
The drive to become what one is capable of becoming
Self-Actualization
Needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs
Lower-order needs
needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs
Higher-order needs
a theory that posits three groups of core needs; existence, relatedness and growth
ERG theory
the assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility and must be coerced to perform
Theory X
The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direciton.
Theory Y
a theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction, while associating extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction
two-factor theory
theory that assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals
Theory X
Factors- such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary- that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied.
Hygiene factors
a theory stating that achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivaiton
McClelland's theory of needs
the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to stive to succeed
Need for Achievement
the need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise
need for power
the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
Need for Afflilation
A theory stating that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsicaly rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation
Cognitive Evalutaion Theory
The degree to which a person's reasons for pursuing a goal is consitent with the person's interests and core values
Self-concordance
the theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance
Goal-setting theory
A program that encompasses specific goals, particpatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress
Management by Objectives(MBO)
The individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task
Self-efficacy
A theory that behavior is a function of its cosequences
Reinforcement Theory
A theory that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.
Equity Theory
Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals
Distributive Justice
An overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, comprised of distributive, procedural, and interactions justice
Organizational Justice
The percieved fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
Procedural Justice
Perceived degree to which an individual is treated with dignity, concern, and respect
Interactional Justice
The strenth of a tendency to act ina certain way depends on the strenth of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual
Expectancy Theory
The way the elements in a job are organized
Job Design
A model that proposes that any job can be described in terms of five core job dimensions: skill variety, task identity, task signficance, autonomy, and feedback
Job Characteristics Model (JCM)
the degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities
Skill Variety
the degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
Task Identity
The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives on work of other people
Task Significance
The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom and discrtion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out
Autonomy
the degree to which carrying out the owkr activities required by the job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear info about the effectiveness of htis or her performance
Feedback
A predictive index suggesting the motivating potential in a job
Motivating Potential Score (MPS)
the periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another(aka cross training)
Job roation
reduces boredom, increases motivation through diversifying the comployee's activities, and helps employees better understand how their work contributes to the organization
Job rotation
increasing the number and variety of tasks that an individual performs results in jobs with more diversity
job enlargement
the vertical expansion of jobs, increasing the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of the work
Job enrichment
flexible work hours
flextime
an arrangement that allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40-hour-a-week job
Job sharing
refers to employees who do their work at home at least two days a week on a computer that is linked to their office
Telecommuting
high levels of performance are partially a function of an absense of obstacles that constrain the employee
opportunity to perform
a participative process that uses the input of employees an is intended to incrase employees commitment to the orgaization's success
Employee involvement
A process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decion-making power with their immediate superiors
Particpative Management
workers particpate in organizational decision making through a small group of representative employees
representative participation
a work group of employees who meet regularly to discuss their qulity problems, investigate causes, recommend solutions and take corrective actions
Quality Circle
A pay plan that bases a poriton of an employee's pay on some individual adn/or orgaizational measure of performance
Variable-pay program
a play plan in which workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed
Pierce-rate pay plan
a pay plan based on performance appraisal ratings
Merit-based pay plan
pay program that rewards employees for recent performance rather than historical performance
Bonus
An organizationwide program that distributes compensation based on some established formula desgined around a company's profitability
Profit-Sharing Plan
a formula-based group incentive plan
Gainsharing
Company- established benefit plans in which employees acquire stock, often at below-market prices, as part of their benefits
Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP)
A pay plan that sets pay levels on the basis of how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do
Skill-based Pay
A benefits plan that allows each employee to put together a benefit package individually tailored to his or her own needs and situation
Flexible Benefits