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32 Cards in this Set

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infraclass Prototheria
-includes only order Monotremata
-primitive features of monotremata
-cloaca
-cranial characters (pre and post frontal bones, lack auditory bulla, lack lacrimal bone)
-ancestral pectoral and pelvic girdle
-cervical ribs present
-retain epipubic bones
-oviparous (egg-laying)
-mammary glands with separate openings
-males lack scrotum and seminal vesicles
monotreme eggs
-contain huge amount of yolk
-have shells - females retain shell gland in malarian ducts
monotreme males testes housed where?
-in abdominal cavity
derived features of monotremata
-leathery bill
-raspy pads on inside of beaks
-one group possesses venom
-electroreceptors in bill (platypus)
-one group has spines
-modified front limbs
families in monotremata
-Ornithorynchidae
-Tachyglossidae
Family Ornithorhynchidae
-Genus: Ornithorhynchus "bird snout"
-swim with front limbs
-webbed front paws with claws
-feed primarily on aquatic invertebrates
-thick, woolly pelage
-venomous spurs on males
-lay 2 eggs, hatch in 10 days
Family Tachyglossidae
-2 genuses: Tachyglossus and Zaglossus
-spines without barbs
-forelimbs modified for digging
-lay single egg, incubated in temporary pouch
-hibernate (at 5 degrees C, allow body temperature to drop to 5.5)
-long tongue used in feeding
-Tachy: short beaked for ants
-Zag: long-beaked for earthworms
therians evolved when, and what was thei ancestor?
-early cretaceous
-Deltatherium
ancestral therian characteristics
-ovoviviparous
-eggs high in yolk content, no placenta
-tribosphenic molars
-probably nocturnal
-solitary
-small brains
-lacked corpus callosum
-lacked cloaca
-true nipples
-spiral cochlea
-epipubic bones
-therian pectoral and pelvic girdle
Three orders in Ameridelphia
-Didelphimorphia
-Microbiotheria
-Paucituberculata
Marsupialia
-first evolved in north america
-went to Eurasia (became extinct)
-radiated in South America (then went extinct in N. america)
-moved to antarctica
-moved to australia (radiated)
-3mya
Didelphimorphia
-family: Didelphidae
--tribosphenic molars
--omnivorous
--opposable hallux
--five upper incisors, four lower
-G: Didelphis (American opossum)
-G: Marmosa (mouse opossums)
--prehensile tail
--lack marsupium
Microbiotheria
F: Microbiotheriidae
G: Dromiciops
--temperate forests in Chilean Andes
--nocturnal
--insectivorous
Paucituberculata
F: Caenolestidae
G: Caenolestes
--enlarged medial pair of lower incisors
--high elevation forests in Andes = treeline
Four orders in Australidelphia
-Dasyuromorphia
-Notoryctemorphia
-Peramelemorphia
-Diprotodontia
Families in Dasyuromorphia
-Dasyuridae (marsupial mice and rats)
-Thylacinidae (Tasmanian wolf)
-Myrmerobiidae (numbat)
Dasyuridae
-marsupial mice and rats
-4/3 incisors
-tribosphenic molars
G: Sarcophilus (Tasmanian devil)
Thylacinidae
-monotypic
-Tasmanian wolf
-Thylacinus cynocephalus
Myrmerobiidae
-numbat
-diurnal, eat ants
-marsupium absent
-eucalyptus woodlands in SW Australia
G: Myrmecobius
adaptations for myrmecophagy
-long rostrum
-delicate dentary or reduced to splint
-teeth reduced to peg-like to absent
-long protrusible tongue
-copious amounts of sticky saliva
-front limbs modified for digging
Notoryctemorphia
-marsupial moles
F: Notoryctidae
G: Notoryctes - deserts in NNE and SC Australia
-fossorial
-claws on 3rd and 4th digits, enlarged
-other digits reduced
-not as fossorial as true moles
-cornified nose shield
fossorial adaptations
-small eyes and small pinnae
-fur velvety, doesn't lie in one direction
-short tail, extrasensitive
-forelimbs modified for digging
Peramelemorphia
-bandicoots
-tribosphenic molars
-forelimb shorter than hind limb
F: Peramelidae
--2nd and 3rd digits syndactylous
--widespread in Australia
--eutheria-like placenta, independently evolved
--saltatorial (bipedal hopping)
-G: Macrotis
Diprotodontia
-most have single pair of upper and lower incisors
-many syndactylous
-hypothesized to be sister group to caenolestids
5 families in Diprotodontia
-Phalangeridae
-Petauridae
-Phascolarctidae
-Vombatidae
-Macropodidae
Phalangeridae
-phalangers
-forests of Australia and New Guinea
-adapted for arboreal life (prehensile tail with naked ventral surface)
-well-developed marsupium
-Phalanger spilosoma (cuscus)
Petauridae
-gliders
-Northern Australia and New Guinea
-Petaurus breviceps (sugar glider)
--nectar feeder
--rectangular gliding membrane between ankles and wrists
--volant (gliding)
--glide up to 50 m
--feet have opposable hallux
Phascolarctidae
-koala, monotypic
G: Phascolarctus
--restricted to eucalyptus trees
--endangered and protected
--1st and 2nd digits opposable
--2nd and 3rd digits on foot syndactylous
--arboreal foliavore
--eat constantly - low quality food
--sleep to digest
--BMR low - dense fur
--heterothermic
Vombatidae
-wombats
-herbivorous
-construct burrows clustered into colonies
-mainly solitary
-only interact during mating season
G: Lasiorhinus (hairy-nosed wombat)
Macropodidae
-widespread throughout Aust, N. Guinea, Indonesian islands
-grazers or browsers
-foregut fermenters
-saltatorial
-syndactylous 2nd and 3rd digits hindfoot
-enlarged 4th digit on foot
-tail enlarged, thick, strong, used as prop for balancing
species and genus of macropodidae to know
-Macropus rufus (red kangaroo)
--up to 90 kg
--gregarious
-Dendrolagus (tree kangaroo)
--leap from ground into trees
--leap down from as high as 18m
-Petrogale (rock wallabies)