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47 Cards in this Set

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6 orders of Afrotheria
-Proboscidea
-Sirenia
-Hyracoidea
-Macroscelidea
-Tubulindentata
-Afrosoricida
Proboscidea
F: elephantidae
G: Elephas (Asiatic)
G: Loxodonta (African)
-6 cheek teeth, 2-3 exposed at a time
-back to front tooth replacement
Sirenia
F: Trichechidae
G: Trichechus
-warm oceans/freshwater
-back to front tooth replacement
-sister group to elephants
Hyracoidea
-F: Procaviidae
-G: Procavia
-unique friction pads - climb on steep rocks
-hyraxes
Macroscelidea
-elephant shrews
F: Macroscelididae
G: Macroscelides
-small and cursorial
Tubulindentata
-aardvark
F: Orycteropidae
G: Orycteropus
-myrmecophagous
Afrosoricida
-F: Tenrecidae (tenrex)
-F: Chrysochloridae (golden moles)
Xenarthra
-South American
-Edentates - teeth reduced or absent
-xenarthrous processes
-strong, robust spines
F: Myrmecophagidae
F: Bradypodidae
Myrmecophagidae
-anteaters
-G: Myrmecophaga
-G: Tamandua
-hyoid apparatus - skeletal support for tongue
-teeth absent
-myrmecophagous adaptations
Bradypodidae
G: Bradypus (three-toed sloth)
-arborial foliavore
-low BMR
-heterothermic, eat constantly
-dense fur
Boreoutheria
-all eutherians except Afrotheria and Xenarthra
Orders in Euarchontoglires
-Rodentia
-Lagomorpha
-Primates
-Dermoptera
-Scandentia
Orders in Laurasiatheria
-Cetartiodactyla
-Perissodactyla
-Pholidota
-Carnivora
-Chiroptera
-Insectivora
Rodentia
-most diverse group
-chisel-like, ever growing incisors
-enamel restricted to anterior surface, dentine posterior (self-sharpening)
-SO: Hystricognathi and Scuirognathi
SO Hystricognathi (families)
-jaw like a porcupine
F: Erethizontidae
F: Hydrochaeridae
F: Bathyergidae
Erethizontidae
-new world porcupines
G: Coendu
G: Erethizon-native to N. America
Hydrochaeridae
G: Hydrochaeris (capybara)
-largest living rodent - up to 75 kg
Bathyergidae
-mole rats
-fossorial
-increasingly complex social behavior
G: Heterocephalus (naked mole rat)
--eusocial (castes)
SO Sciurognathi (families)
-jaw like a squirrel
-Sciuridae
-Heteromyidae
-Geomyidae
-Muridae
Sciuridae
-squirrels
-everywhere except Australia
-Spermophilus beldingi
Heteromyidae
-pocket mice and kangaroo rats
-increasingly saltatorial locomotion
-increasing desert adaptations
-G: Microdipodops (kangaroo mice)
--most saltatorial and desert-adapted
Geomyidae
-pocket gophers
-external fur-lined cheek pouches
-extremely fossorial
-G: Thomomys
--fusiform body
--fossorial adaptations
--procumberent incisors (stick through lips)
Muridae
-mice and rats
-Subfamilies: Sigmadontinae and Arvicolinae
Sigmadontinae
-new world rats and mice
-G: Reithrodontonys
Arvicolinae
-voles and lemmings
-G: Microtus longicaudus
--semi-fossorial
--regular population cycles
Lagomorpha
-rabbits
-second pair of incisors behind first pair
-sister group to rodents
F: Leporidae - rabbits and hares
--Lepus townsenii (white-tailed jackrabbit)
--adapted for cursorial locomotion
-extremely fenestrated rostrum
Primates
-evolved from arboreal ancestors
-2 suborders: Strepsirhini and Hablorhini
Strepsirhini
-lemurs
F: Lemuridae (Madagascar)
--Lemuri cata
Hablorhini
-anthropoid primates
F: Callithricidae (tamarins and marmosets)
--entirely neotropical
--Neonopithicus brasilia (golden tamarin)
F: Hominidae (great apes)
--all except humans used to be in family Pongidae
Dermoptera
-F: Cynocephalidae (colugos)
-G: Cynocephalus
--gliding membrane from wrists to ankles
--comb-like upper incisor for grooming
Scandentia
-tree shrews
F: Tupaidae
G: Tupaia
Insectivora
-F: Soricidae (shrews)
--Sorex vagrans (wandering shrew)
--G: Blarina (short-tailed shrews)
---venomous saliva
Chiroptera
-bats "hand wing"
-powered flight - flight membrane betweeen digits
Two suborders: Megachiroptera and microchiroptera
Megachiroptera
-flying foxes, fruit bats
F: Pteropodidae
G: Rosettus
-large eyes, crepuscular
-do not echolocate (excetp Rosettus)
Microchiroptera
-echolocating forms
-nocturnal
F: Phyllostomidae (new world leaf-nosed bats)
F: Vespertilionidae
Phyllostomidae
-new world leaf-nosed bats
-great diversity in feeding behavior
-extreme flexibility in renal physiology
-Artibeus jamaicensis - fruitivorous
-Desmodus - sanguinivorous
--blade-like incisor
--saliva contains anticoagulant and anesthetic
Vespertilionidae
-insectivorous
-Euderma (spotted bat)
Carnivora
-majority meat-eaters
-carnassial teeth (adapted for shearing meat)
--4th upper premolar, 1st lower molar
-includes seals, sea lions, walruses
F: Phocidae (true seals)
G: Mirounga (elephant seals)
F: Procyonidae (raccoons)
G: Bassariscus (ringtail)
Pholidota
-scaly anteaters = Pangolins
F: Manidae
G: Manis
-myrmecophagous
-ligaments that attach tongue to pelvis
-sphincter muscle in ear
-presence of scales composed of agglutinized hair
Cetartiodactyla
terrestrial forms and aquatic forms
-cetacea and artiodactyla
terrestrial cetartiodactylans
-third/fourth digits greatly lengthened
-lateral digits reduced
-metapodials fused into canon bone
-ungula modified into hoof (homolog for fingernail)
-herbivorous, some omnivorous
-multi-chambered stomach = ruminants
terrestrial families of certartiodactyla
F: Suidae (hogs)
-omnivorous
-lack multi-chambered stomach
G: Sus (domestic hog)
F: Giraffidae
G: Giraffa
--horns on parietal bone, never erupt
G: Phacochaeris (warthog)
--tusks - modified upper incisors
marine forms of cetardiodactyla
-sister group to hippopotamids
-fusiform body shape
-front limb modified into flipper
-hind limb lost - vestigial pelvic girdle
-nares rotated to top of head
-2 groups: mysticete and odontocete
Mysticete whales
-baleen whales
-baleen = keratinized sheets
F: Balaenopteridae
G: Megaptera (humpback whale)
G: Balaenoptera (blue whale)
Odontocete whales
-toothed whales
-F: Delphinidae (dolphins and porpoises)
-Orcinus orca (killer whale)
Perissodactylae
-odd-toed ungulates
-3rd digit expanded into single hoof
-sometiems 4th and 5th digits still present
-1st and 5th digit extremely reduced or lost
-herbivorous - large diastema
Perissodactylae families
-Rhinoceratidae
-G: Ceratotherium (white rhino)
--keratinized horn on tip of snout
F: Equidae
G: Equus
-Equus greveyi (Grevey's zebra)