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35 Cards in this Set

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What are the characteristics of Anapsida?
-No temporal fossas
-stem reptiles and turtles
What are the characteristics of Diapsida?
-2 temporal fossas
-other living reptiles and birds
What are the characteristics of Eurapsids?
Extinct marine reptiles
What are Synapsida?
Mammal like reptiles
When were the synapsida the most important group of reptiles? when did they dwindle down?
-Most important in the Permian and early Triassic (280 – 230 my BP)
-In Triassic dwindled in importance and near extinction by close of Triassic (206 my BP)
What were two possible reasons for the dwindling and near extinction of the Synapsida?
1. Changing climatic conditions
2. Competition from other groups of reptiles
Give an example of a Pelycosauria (name only).
Dimetrodon
Describe the Dimetrodon (type of Pelycosauri).
1. Sail backed
2. elongated neural spines w/skin inbetween
3. Temporal opening small
4. single occipital condyle
5. mandible has 4 bones
Therapsida are considered primitive or advanced mammal-like reptiles?
Advanced
When did the Therapsida exist?
Lower Permian to late Triassic
What spans the morphological gap from fairly primitive reptiles to nearly mammalian animals? which way did they progress?
Therapsida. Progressed towards mammals
Of the three Therapsida "subgroups", which is the most primitive? When did it exist and where?
Eothitanosuchia. Late Permian-Russia
What were the Theriodontia?
Progressive carnivores
Of the three Therapsida "subgroups", which is the most primitive? When did it exist and where?
Eothitanosuchia. Late Permian-Russia
Describe Anomodonts (3)
1. Herbiverous dead end
2. Trends for Herbivory specialization
3. No tendency of advancment toward mammals
What were the Theriodontia?
Progressive carnivores
When did stem reptiles first appear?
Middle Pennsylvanian (290-300 my BP)
What are Seymouriamorphs-Cotylosaurs?
Transition b/w amphibian and reptile
What are some adaptations reptiles have to live on land (unlike amphibians) (3)
1. Waterproofing of skin-Keratinezed stratified epithelium
2. Development of cleidoic egg
3. Pattern of development
What is a cleidoic egg?
Has a semi permeable shell, amniotic sac, and chorionic sac
What are the primitive forms of each class/order whatever?
1. Pelycosauria
2. Eothitanosuchia
3. Gorgonapsia
4. Therocephlia
5.Procynosuchidae
6. Galesauridae
When was Pelycosauria in existence?
mostly Permian (290-250myBP)
When was Pelycosauria dominant?
Early. It's paraphyletic
When did Gorganopsia exist?
Middle to Upper Permian
When and where was Eothitanosuchia?
Late Permian; Russia
What was the basal stock from which mammals arose?
Theriodontia
Which suborder has a great deal of diversity?
Cynodontia
When and where did Procynosuchidae exist?
Triassic of S. Africa
When and where did Galesauridae exist?
Triassic of S. Africa
When did Traversodontidae exist?
Lower Triassic
Which group is close to ancestry of mammals?
Traversodontidae
What's the last surviving Therapsid?
Tritylodontidae
When and where did Tritylodontidae appear?
Appeared in Upper Triassic and had world wide distribution. Lingered into Middle Jurrasic in Great Britain
Of the Cynodonts, which group(s) were herbivorous and which were carnivorous?
Herb: Traversodontidae + Tritylodontidae
Carn: Cynognathidae (earliest family)
Of the Cynodonts, which group(s) were herbivorous and which were carnivorous?
Herb: Traversodontidae + Tritylodontidae
Carn: Cynognathidae (earliest family)