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130 Cards in this Set

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Sensory Systems
vision, hearing, biological rhythms
vision
tapetum lucidum, rods, cones
tapetum lucidum
reflective cover-lines inside eyes, increases night vision
rods
black and white- night time
cones
color- daytime
hearing
infrasounds and ultrasounds
infrasounds
(low pitched)- elephants
ultrasound
(high pitched)-bats, whales ie, echolocators
Biological rhythms
circadian, ultradian, circannual
circadian
(24 hr cycle) diurnal, nocturnal, crepuscular
diurnal
active during daytime - humans, all members of Sciuridae
nocturnal
active at night - Canidae, most of Muridae
crepuscular
active at dawn and dusk (bats) may have limited activity other times but highest activity at dawn and dusk
Ultradian
(>24hr) -bouts of activity and rest -voles and shrews have 6-8 bouts in 24 hr period
Circannual
(yearly cycles) -hibernation, migration, reproduction, pelage changes/ molt
Environmental adaptations to cold
increase body size, increase insulation, behavioral thermoregulation, increase metabolic heat production, let body temp vary, regional heterothermy
increase body size
(less surface area compared to volume)-Bergman’s rule
increase insulation
(fur, blubber) some ungulates have hollow hair to increase insulative value, many aquatic animals trap bubbles under fur, blubber great insulator
behavioral thermoregulation for cold conditions
build a nest/house, gregarious behavior (huddle together during cold weather), basking, positioning near heat source, body position (curled up), migration (whales are greatest mammal migrator), elevational migrations
increase metabolic heat production
eat fattier food, brown adipose fat (common in bats shrews and infants), shivering
let body temp vary
slow metabolic rate, different degrees of adaptive hypothermia (torpor, hibernation & estivation)
torpor/estivation
bears, chipmunks, kangaroo rats, bats (dormancy characterized by lower body temp, respiration, heart rate and metabolic rate), can be due to cold or heat (estivation) bats go into estivation during day in summer, torpor in winter and sometimes true hibernation in winter-some little brown bats live 35 years
hibernation
ground squirrels, marmots, hedgehogs-dramatic decrease in body temp
regional heterothermy
extremities cooler, constrict blood flow to extremities (basal constriction) some animals have veins wrapped around arteries to warm cold blood before it returns to core
Environmental adaptations to heat
allen's rule, evaporative cooling, hyperthermia, size, exertion and heat stress strategy, behavioral mechanisms
allens rule
larger appendages for heat dissipation
Evaporative cooling
sweating, panting, nasal membranes
hyperthermia
increase temp above normal some african mammals-camels have 34℃ in morning and 40℃ in heat of afternoon
Size
larger animals absorb less heat
exertion and heat stress strategy
cheetahs store heat during hunt then cool afterwards, will sit and pant before eating to dissipate heat
behavioral mechanisms for heat regulation
nocturnal to avoid heat of the day, swim, seek shade
adaptive advantages of fossorial habitats
reduce temp fluctuations in environment, high humidity, safer from predation, low O2 and high CO2 (myoglobin in fossorial mammals has higher affinity for O2), burrowing is expensive
Water regulation of Intake
drinking, eating, metabolic water
Water regulation of loss
skin-sweat (lungs, tongue, some noses), urination, defecation, lactation, saliva
General Water Regulation principles
most large mammals drink every day or two, many animals get water thru diet, succulents, seeds soak up moisture underground, some can concentrate urine -nephron & loop of henley (water extracted from urine, longer loop of henley extracts more water)
Mammal classification, Kingdom thru Infraclass
Kingdom-Animalia
Phylum-Chordata
subphylum-Vertebrata
I. Class- Mammalia
A. Subclass Prototheria (monotremes)
B. Subclass Theria
1. Infraclass Metatheria (marsupials)
2. Infraclass Eutheria (placentals)
Prototheria (Monotremes)-evolutionary history
diverged early on and retained some primative characteristics but did evolve specialized characteristics
Primitive characteristics of monotremes
oviparous-egg layers, incubate eggs, have hair and produce milk
cloaca -one opening for reproduction, urine and feces
primitive shoulder girdle splays outward
primitive brain has less surface area (less convolutions) (more convolutions related to higher intelligence)
heterothermic -have fluctuations in body temp
some mammals have some of the above characters but evolved back to them
Derived Characteristics of monotremes
elongated rostrum
mammary glands with no nipples, young lap milk
species and relative abundance in Order Monotremata
Echidna (4 species)
Platypus (1 species)
Echidna traits
insectivorous, true hibernators, spiny
Platypus traits
small, leathery bill, semi-aquatic, webbed feet, nocturnal, spur with venomous gland on hind feet, modified nasal bones to support bill
Evolutionary history of Infraclass Metatheria (Marsupials)
found in Australia and South America and mostly evolved in isolation (no competion with eutherians ) highly convergent with eutherians (evolved to adapt to niches) were once highly diverse group, fossils range from rhino to large cat size, much diversity lost due to competition with eutherians once ranges overlapped
marsupium
pouch but only ~50% of marsupials have one
some reasons why marsupials weren't as successful as eutherians
no flying or marine marsupials
conservative structural plan
haven’t exploited great sizes (like whales)
no complex social systems
most have an opposable digit
Neotropical Metatherian Orders
Didelphimorphia, Paucituberculata, Microbiotheria
relative abundance of Order Didelphimorphia and some spp
(87 spp) opossum, mouse opossum-prehensile tail, epipubic bones (males and females-might be for supporting pouch or maybe balance), lots of teeth, forked penis because females have double systems with double openings, 13 nipples in circle with one in middle, scrotum anterior to penis, infants find way to pouch and hang onto nipple (like umbilical cord) til mom boots them out
Family Didelphidae
-Virginia Opossum
relative abundance of Order Paucituberculata and some species in
(6 spp)-rat opossum
relative abundance of Order Microbiotheria and some species in
(1 sp)-Monito del Monte-opposable thumb
Australian Metatherian Orders
Dasyuromorphia, Peramelemorphia, Notoryctemorphia, Diprotodontia
relative abundance of Order Dasyuromorphia and some spp in
(71 spp)-carnivorous marsupials- Spotted quoll, extinct Tasmanian wolf, tasmanian devil
relative abundance of Order Peramelemorphia and some spp in
(21 spp) bandicoot, bilby
relative abundance of Order Notoryctemorphia and spp in
(2 spp)- marsupial mole
relative abundance of Order Diprotodontia and spp in
(143 spp) most speciose group-kangaroo, wallaby, wombat, possum, glider, koala, cuscus, sugar gliders -can use tail as third foot for balance to attack with back feet
membranes in amniotic egg
embryo in amniotic sac of amniotic fluid for protection attached to yolk sac for nutrition, surrounded by allantoic cavity created by allantoic membrane for gas exchange then chorion for disposal of nitrogenous waste all within the shell
placental evolution in metatherians
choriovitteline placenta because yolk and chorion membranes merged
placental evolution in eutherians
chorioallantoic placenta because allantoic and chorion membranes merged
Insectivores
gen characteristics: plantigrade, heterodont dentition with large first incisor, not much dental specialization, small eyes, some have cloaca, some spp have toxic saliva, some spp have crude echolocation, Orders: Afrosoricida, Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Talpidae
Order Afrosoricida
(51 sp) tenrecs and golden moles, tenrecs classic case of divergent evolution (from Madagascar) diversified to fill many niches, golden moles (african)-move thru sand, no permanent tunnels
Order Erinaceomorpha
(24spp) hedgehogs (england) and gymnure (moon rats) (Philippines)
Order Soricomorpha
(428spp) shrews (family Soricidae) and moles (family Talpidae) Solenodon (Caribbean)
Family-Soricidae
(shrews)- high metabolic rate, most widespread distribution of any insectivore, subfamily has pigmented teeth (in OR-makes id easy in owl pellets) double pointed incisor, pointy unicuspids, some have aquatic adaptations some trap air under feet and run across water, must eat 2xbody weight every day, aggressive and solitary, babies grab onto mom in a chain, mostly tunnel in leaf litter
Family-Talpidae
(moles, shrew-moles)-talpids have broad feet, subterranean, pectoral girdle, feet and musculature modified for digging, surface runs and deep tunnels and dens
Order Macroscelidea
(15 spp)- elephant shrews, large ears and eyes, long snouts, insectivores, from africa,
Order Scandentia
(20 spp) tree shrews, insectivores, 1 family, distributed across India and Malayan archipelago, convergence of arboreal habits
Order Dermoptera
-colugo (flying lemurs), glide 1 genus 2 spp, distributed SE Asia and Malayan archipelago, restricted to trees, habitat extremely threatened, can’t disperse across clearcuts, lower incisors modified into comb for grooming, furred membrane for gliding, can glide with baby hanging on
Order Chiroptera
(1116 spp)-second most diverse order in mammalia, most agree that chiropterans are monophyletic and flight evolved once but some controversy, wings modified from digit bones, thumb free, other digits elongate for attachment of membrane, propatagium above limb, chiropatagium between digits, plagiopatagium between last digit and foot, uropatagium connects to feet to tail, uropatagium sometimes used like basket to scoop insects, calcar adds support to uropatagium, some hibernate or have torpor, efficient insect predators, important pollinators, greatest diversity in tropics and sub-tropics but distributed everywhere except polar regions and some islands, not much fossil record due to small size, wing loading (large wings for body size) lower than most birds making them much more maneuverable, white nose syndrome (fungus) that disrupts torpor causing loss of fat reserves and lots of mortality may be spread by cavers and bats may cause myotis lucifugus to go extinct estimates of 90% bats extinct in next 100 yrs
Megachiropterans
(fruit bats and flying foxes), uropatagial spur-cartilaginous support for uropatagium, 1 family, large eyes, no tragus, mostly fruit eaters also nectar and pollen, Africa, Australia south pacific, not known to hibernate, roost in colonies as many as 100,000, active during day
3 major achievements of bats
-flight, echolocation, reduce metabolic rate during day for energy conservation
Microchiropterans
Microchiropterans; insectivorous bats, several families, heterothermic-body temp fluctuates thru day even when not hibernating, echolocation for orientation, hang upside down because it is easier to take off-might not be able to take off from the ground, elaborate nose structures help with sound production
family Vespertiliontidae
family Molossidae (free tailed bats)-form colonies, often migrate to mexico but may not if they find a good place to winter
Order Primates
(376 spp) suborders Strepsirhini (primitive) & Haplorhini (New and Old World anthropoid primates
radiation of primates due to
arboreal habits, stereoscopic eyes, social behavior,
suborder Strepsirhini
(more primitive characters),5 families of lemur endemic to Madagascar, potto, loris, galago (bush babies), aye-aye (have extended digit for grub collecting)
suborder Haplorhini
tarsiers and New and Old World anthropoid primates; New World anthropoid primates: marmosets and tamarins and monkeys; Old World anthropoid primates: macaques, baboons and mangabey, gibbons and apes (Hominidae)
New World anthropoid primates
marmosets, tamarins, monkeys (Cibidae, only in South America)
Old World anthropoid primates
baboons and macaques, gibbons, apes (humans in this line)
Order Cingulata
(21 spp) Dasypodidae, armadillos
Xenarthrans
Cingulata & Pilosa -armadillo, sloths, anteaters (have extra articulations in lower back that add rigidity (xenarthrous process), no incisors or canines, sloths have caniform premolar, radiated in South America-neotropcal
armadillos
curl up, defensive mechanism is to run to their dens, carry leprosy especially lactating females
Order Pilosa
(10 spp)-sloth, anteater, sloths only come down to defecate can swim very clumsy on ground, anteaters some can climb trees babies ride on mama and can hardly be seen
Order Pholidota
(8spp)-pangolins, Africa, Sahara desert, SE Asia, pholis ‘horny scale’, tongue attaches to sternum (some anteater tongues do too), feed mostly on termites
Order Tubulidentata
(1spp) aardvark, South Africa, large ears, nocturnal, powerful diggers, ecosystem engineers-make a lot of tunnels and excavations that other animals will use, use smell mostly to find food, ants and termites, elongated snout with sticky tongue, digitgrade but not that fast
family Dasypodidae
9-banded armadillo, always have quadruplets from 1 egg, only NA family not found in OR
adaptive radiation
arisal of many orders in a short period of time (many mammal orders), extinction of the dinosaurs opened up a lot of new niches leading to the adaptive radiation of mammals, leads to a lot of confusion and controversy about who is most closely related to who
star phylogeny
phylogeny of a central ancestor with many derived orders creates a star shape
Order Creodontia
closely related to carnivora but no extant members
Order Carnivora
(287spp) mid-level of diversity 2 suborders-Feliformia & Caniformia, many threatened, large ranges-need large prey base, conflict with people, tend to have large effect on their ecosystems and are largely effected by human activity, remarkable sense of smell (highly complex turbinal bones increase surface area), predacious, mostly carnivorous but some omnivorous, carnassial teeth P4/m1 for shearing, most have digitigrade except for omnivores which are plantigrade, many have anal scent glands
suborder Feliformia, Family Felidae
cat, hyenas, aardwolf, civets and genets, most proficient predators, most strictest carnivore diet, short rostrum increases bite power, retractable claws except for cheetah, large cats roar and small cats purr due to differences in hyoid bone (tongue attachment point), most don’t have clavicle-moves front feet more directly underneath for faster running fast burst of speed to take prey
Hyenas
specialized carrion feeders, mostly don’t kill themselves, modified with strong bite and stomach acid for digesting bones
Aardwolf
specialized for termites, weak jaw, most closely related to hyenas
Civets and genets
short legged carnivores, insects and small mammals
Herpesitids
mongooses-old world but introduced many places and wreak havoc, will throw eggs between legs to break it against a rock, developed social structure (meer cats) that allowed some to develop diurnal habits
suborder Caniformia
Canidae, Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Procyonidae, Ursidae, Odobenidae, Phocidae, Otariidae
Family Canidae
long rostrum, complex turbinal bones, well developed carnassial teeth, many missing clavicle for more efficient cursorial motion, not as fast as cats longer pursuits of prey wear prey down, non retractable claws, hunting behavior loosely correlated with size fox solitary and wolves in a pack
Family Mustelidae
fishers, weasels, badgers, otters, typically small, long bodied, short limbed, pushed in face, well dev. scent glands, many have valuable fur, otters use tools, delayed implantation, breed in spring while kits are young and delay implantation until winter
Family Mephitidae
skunks
Family Procyonidae
raccoons, cotymondys, lesser panda (red panda, problematic taxa)- omniverous feeding, dexterous forefeet for washing food, almost lost carnassial teeth
Family Ursidae
bears, spectacled bear, panda (problematic)-black bears have elongated face and brown bears have rounded face, brown bear was historically found here- omnivorous, large size, plantigrade, non-retractable claws, powerful limbs, agile, cheek teeth modified for crushing, technically not true hibernators but temp does drop slightly and pulse drops dramatically-can be aroused-large size limits amount temp can drop
Family Odobenidae
walrus-no external ears, both sexes have tusks, mollusk specialists, gregarious, polyganous (multiple females for dominant male and sneaker males)
pinniped characteristics
aquatic, generally larger than land mammals (easier to regulate body temp), no clavicles for fusiform shape, torpedo shape, canines modified into tusks, cheek teeth modified homodont dentition-grab fish and mollusks and swallow-(walrus mollusk specialists), hands and feet fully webbed, shunt blood to certain extremities and body parts for deep dives
Family Phocidae
earless seals, don’t move well on land, highly specialized for aquatic life, hind limbs modified for propulsion, many monogamous at least for a season, elephant seals polyganous-males very large females seal sized-males large proboscis for noise, live under ice and maintain breathing holes
Family Otariidae
eared seals, sea lions -less modified for aquatic lifestyle-do better on land, can waddle on flippers, front flippers propel
non taxonomic way to break down carnivores
fissipeds: feliformes + other caniformes, pinnipeds: aquatic caniformes-walrus, seals
Order Cetacea
(84sp) suborder Mysticeti & Odontoceti, largest fossil, blue whale largest, all listed in CITES, populations crashed due to overhunting & slow repro-only 1xyr, closest relative artiodactyla like hippos, modified nares on top of head, sperm whale largest toothed whale, rapid gas exchange, apnea, have little dead air space in lungs, 2x more erythrocytes, more myoglobin, heart rate drops during deep dives, high tolerance for lactic acid & CO2, use geomagnetic field for navigation, fusiform body shape, hair confined to bristles, blubber for insulation (adipose tissue), no sebaceous glands, forelimbs for steering, power from fluke with vertical undulating movement, vestigial hind limbs, regressed pelvis -may have secondary purposes
suborder Mysticeti
baleen whales, humpback whales (hunt with bubble nets)-baleen hangs in sheets from roof of mouth-like stiff coarse hair-keratinized structures, mostly don’t form pods sometimes small groups but mostly as individuals or mom with baby-3 feeding styles-right whale, large head suck in water and spit thru filters-rorquals, expandable ventral pouch for bringing in large amount of water, have short baleen plates and spit water out, gray whale-mud scoopers, scoop mud and filter, often find at river mouths
suborder Odontoceti
toothed whales-oceans and rivers, can echolocate, might be able to acoustically stun prey, killer whales for pods some specialize on different prey, homodont dentition, narwhale has modified tooth as tusk for ritualized combat, sperm whale often dive real deep (hunt squid) then hang out at surface for a long time to exchange gasses
Order Rodentia
(2277sp) sister group of Lagomorpha, largest order, broken into suborders based on attachment of masseter muscle, suborders: Sciuromorpha, Castorimorpha, Myomorpha, Anomaluromorpha, Hystricomorpha, ever growing front incisors with frontal enamel is one of the traits allowing massive diversification of order (opened up greater variety of food sources), lost canines and some premolars-diastema, many ecological equivalents-convergent evolution (jerboa-dipodidae looks like roo rat-heteromyidae but is in Africa),
suborder Sciuromorpha
Aplodontiidae, Scuiridae, Geomyidae
(small infraorbital foramen)-lateral masseter attaches to zygomatic arch and rostrum
suborder Castorimopha
Castoridae -beavers ecosystem engineers, Heteromyidae-desert species-occur here because of influx of spp from Great Basin flora, long legs, usually nocturnal, store food underground to get water-get ~100% of water from food and metabolism, active year round, take lots of sand baths, long tail for balance
suborder Myomorpha
Dipodidae (jumping mice), hibernate-short period of activity
Cricetidae (vole, deer mouse) voles-bicolored-arboreal, peromyscus not arboreal,
Muridae (old world rats & mice, house mouse) moved around world with humans, high reproductive capacity and evergrowing incisors contributed to success

(slit-like infraorbital foramen)- lateral masseter attaches to the zygomatic arch and the medial masseter attaches ti the rostrum (most families of sciurognaths including muridae)
suborder Anomaluromorpha
scaly-tailed squirrels & old world-spring hares (African)
suborder Hystricomorpha
Erethizontidae (porcupine), Myocastoridae (nutria), capybera (largest rodent)
(large infraorbital foramen) medial masseter passes through enlarged infraorbital foramen and attaches to rostrum)
Orders with greatest diversity (>1000spp)
Rodentia (2277), Chiroptera (1116)
Orders of moderate diversity (>100 & <1000spp)
Soricomorpha (428), Primates (376), Carnivora (287), Artiodactyla (240), Diprotodontia (143)
Orders of low/med diversity (>50 & <100spp)
Lagomorpha (93), Cetacea (84), Didelphimorphia (87), Dasyuromorphia (71), Afrosoricida (51)
Orders of low diversity (<50spp)
Erinaceomorpha (24), Scandentia (20),Peramelemorphia (21), Cingulata (21), Perissodactyla (17), Macroscelidea (15), Pilosa (10), Pholidota (8),Paucituberculata (6), Sirenia (5), Hyracoidea (4), Proboscidea (3), Notoryctiemorphia (2), Dermoptera (2), Tubulidentata (1), Microbiotheria (1)
Order Lagomorpha
(93spp) sister group of Rodentia, Ochotonidae, Leporidae, rabbits, hares & pikas, like small ungulates, diversity probably suppressed by ungulates, fenestrated rostrum (maybe for cooling?), evergrowing incisors, diastema (allows them to gather things in their mouth), peg-like incisors, rigid mandibular joint (to withstand shock), population cycles (snowshoe hare and lynx-lynx pops follow hare pops with lag time and less extreme-new research shows connection with plant anti-herbivorous toxins), rabbits have altricial young (helpless at birth), hares have precocial young, caprophagic (hindgut ruminators w/ large cecum), pikas store hay and protect it and try to steal it from each other, some pikas live in nunataks (snow free areas in glaciers)-small pops that may go extinct fairly often- will feed on migrating birds
Order Proboscidea
3 spp, sister taxa of Hyracoidea along with Sirenia elephants, African-savannah, African-forest, Asian, largest land mammals, graviportal limbs, modified incisors form tusks, hypsodont (high crowned) molars, shorter life span in zoos-difficult to get herbivore diet right, modify landscape-terrorize trees, infrasounds low frequency that travels long distances (5mi thru air, as far as 20 mi in ground), highly social, matriarchal-lead female and sisters, difficult to keep in zoos
Asian elephant characters
smaller ears, top of head dome shaped and highest point, smaller size, finger like projection at end of trunk
African elephant characters
larger size, larger ears in shape of Africa, shoulders usually highest point, 2 fingerlike projections on tip of trunk
Order Hyracoidea
(4 spp), hyrax, rock hyraxes communal & diurnal, tree hyraxes solitary arboreal & nocturnal, weight on 3rd digit-mesaxonic, debate about whether more closely related to perissodactyl or proboscidea & sirenia (more support),
Order Sirenia
(5 spp) grazers, all endangered, bristles on face, some insulation but restricted to tropical regions, vestigial pelvis and hind limbs, fluked tail
manatees (florida-central america) slow
dugongs (africa-asia) faster
Ungulates
perissodactyla & artiodactyla, hooved herbivores
Order Perissodactyla
(17spp), horses, rhinos & tapirs, convergence with artiodactyl-due to fast, herbivorous herd animals, cheekteeth large and very complex, hindgut (intestinal) fermentors but no caprophagy, mesaxonic-run on 3rd digit, hooves, metapodials (metatarsals and metacarpals) fused into cannon bone allows rigidity and stability to help with speed and stability, long legs increases stride length, fast stride rate, reduced-to-lost clavicle, formerly more diverse, horns, horses diversified in north america moved to old world then exterpirated in NA, white rhino grazer, black rhino browser,
Order Artiodactyla
(240spp), Antilocapridae, Cervidae, Bovidae, pigs, peccaries,hippos, camels (lama, vicuna, etc), giraffes, deer, antelope, sheep, goats, cattle, mostly foregut (gastric) fermentors ex pigs, 4 digestive chambers-3 from esophagus and 1 real stomach, horns and antlers, if antlers grow at unequal rates they spiral, peraxonic (weight on 3 & 4, with 2 & 5 forming dew claws with no thumb 1), many have cannon bone, most have high crowned teeth
Family Antilocapridae
pronghorn, one species restricted to North America (fossil record entirely NA), super fast up to 60mph, some females have small horns, won’t jump over fences-run along and look for break
Family Cervidae
deer and elk, will jump fences, generally only males have antlers, mule deer (bigger-east side) and black-tailed deer (smaller-coastal west side) on genetic continuum that I-5 is separating, black-tailed deer have branched antlers and white-tail have long main antler with extensions-have been introduced to 
Roseburg area, high populations can be harmful to other elements in ecosystem and spread disease
Family Bovidae
sheep, goats and bison, sheep won’t jump fences
4 chamber digestive process
mouth- chewing starts digestion goes to -rumen- what didn’t get chewed well floats to top and is regurgitated, rechewed and goes to -reticulum- & -omasum- fermentation on to -abomasum- true stomach