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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where did Monotremata
Where did Metatheria fossils appear?
North America
What's the earliest Metatherian fossil?
Clemensia; placed in the Family Didelphidae
Where were primitive Eutherians found?
China and North America
What are Didelphimorphia?
What are Paucituberculata?
Shrew Opossums
What were Taeniodonta?
Semi-fossorial insectivores
What were Tillodonta?
Rodent-like w/large incisors
What were Pyrotheria?
Herbivorous ungulates, rather elephant-like
What were Condylartha
What were Pantodonts?
Side branch of Condylartha
What were Dinocerata?
Grotesque, lg rhino-like beast
What were Creodonta?
Carnivorous, possibly ancestor to Recent Order Carnivora
What are Xenarthra?
Primitive armadillo-like mammals
What were Dermoptera?
Culugo (flying mammal)
What type of eggs do Monotremata have?
Macrolecithal and Telolecitha egg
What is a Telolecithal egg?
yolk concentrated towards vegetal pole of ovum (same as in birds, other mammals have isolecithal eggs)
What is a Macrolecithal egg?
lg amounts of yolk (all other mammals have a microlecithal egg)
What is an isolecithal egg?
Evenly distributed yolk (other mammals)
Monotremata eggs have what kind of cleavage?
Meroblastic: early cleavage (cell division) restricted to sm disc at the animal pole (same as birds)
Which ovary(ies) are functional in a platypus? Echidnas?
Platypus: left ovary functions
Echidnas: both
What's present in the oviduct of a monotremata?
Shell gland
Describe 3 characteristics of the male monotremata's anatomy of reproductive system
1.Testes are abdominal
2. Seminal vesicles and prostate glands are absent
3. Penis bifurcated; baculum absent
Describe the pouch in echidnas and platypus
Echidnas develop a temporary pouch while platypus never develop a pouch
How long do monotremata incubate their eggs for? WHat's special about their mammaries?
7-10 days. Mammary glands lack nipples and young suck milk from lobules (tuffs of hair) in pouch of ehidna
List the fossil record of the monotremata
1. Primitive monotreme (steropodoon)-Early Cretaceous fm New South Wales of Australia
2. Platypus (3 teeth)-Early Paleocene fm Patagonia
3. Platypus (teeth & pelvis)-Middle Miocene fm Australia
4. Recent genera known fm the Pleistocene of Australia
What are the living families of Order Monotremata
1. Family Tachyglossidae
2. Family Ornithorhynchidae
What animals are in the Tachyglossidae Family?
Echida or spiny anteaters
How many living Genera of the Tachyglossidae Family are there?
2 (short and long nosed Echidna; common names)
What does Myrmecophagus mean?
Ant loving or ant feeder
Briefly describe their foraging habits
Turn over stones and dig open ant and termite nests to feed off of ants, termites, and other invertebrates
Describe the Tachyglossidae's mouth
1. Loss or great reduction of teeth
2. Dentary greatly reduced, slender and delicate
3. Long, protrusile tongue
4. Viscous mucus
How many eggs are layed and incubated in the pouch by the Tachyglossidae
Single leathery-shelled egg
Describe the Tachyglossidae's hibernation
1. True hibernation: body temp drops to 5.5C when ambient temp in 5.0C
2. Hibernation initiated by cold and lack of food
3. Arousalfm hibernation is spontaneous
What is the only species in the Family Ornithorhynchidae?
Duck billed platypus
What do Duck billed platypus feed on and where?
Larval insects; primarily bottom feeders and remain submerged for up to a minute
Where are Duck-billed playtpus found (geographically)?
Eastern Australia and Tasmania
What's the population status of the platypuss?
Thought to be endangered: common but vulnerable to local extinctions
Describe the reproduction of the Duck-billed platypuss
1 to 3 eggs, usually 2, laid in a nest of moist leaves b/w late August and mid-October: Burrow 50ft or more in length