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196 Cards in this Set

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Why are the testes located outside of the scrotum?
Because they are temperature sensitive.
What does the exocrine portion of the testes produce?
Sperm, the male gamete
What does the endocrine poriton of the testes produce?
Testosterone.
What type of gland are the testes?
A compound tubular gland.
What CT surrounds the testis? What kind of CT is it?
Tunica albuginea which is a thick layer of dense irregular CT capsule.
What is the mediastinum testis?
A thickened CT region on the posterior aspect of the testes.
What surrounds the testes on the anterior surface?
Tunica vaginalis.
What is, embryologically speaking, tunica vaginalis from?
It is a remnant of peritoneal outpocketing during development.
What type of epithelium lines tunica vaginalis?
Lined by simple cuboidal epithelium.
What does the tunica vaginalis do?
It allows the testes to slide freely in the scrotum.
What divides testes into lobules? What is it made out of? From where to where does it extend?
Septula, or a sheet or wall of CT that extends from the capsule ot mediastium testis.
How many lobules are there in each testes?
200-250
How many seminiferous tubules are in each lobule?
1-4
Describe seminiferous tubules. What do they drain into? Where?
A highly coiled long tubule that drains into the straight tubule at the apex of the lobule in the mediastinum testis.
What part of the testes are the seminiferous tubules?
Exocrine portion
What epithelium lines the seminiferous tubule?
Stratified seminiferous epithlium.
What kind of secretion forms spermatozoa? Into what duct do they enter?
Cytocrine secretion into seminiferous tubule.
What kind of cells are Leydig cells?
Intersitial cells.
Where are Leydig cells located?
Between the tubules in the lobules.
What do Leydig cells secrete and what is their mode of secretion?
They secrete testosterone via merocrine secretion.
What lines seminiferous tubules?
Germinal epithelium
What surrounds the seminiferous tubules?
A thin CT layer.
Where is the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule located?
Between epithelium and CT.
What are the 2 cell types in the seminiferous tubules? Give any synonomous names as well.
Spermatogenic cells and Sustentacular cells (sertoli cells, nurse cells)
What do spermatogenic cells do?
They are the most prevalent cells and they undergo meiosis.
What do sustentacular cells or Sertoli cells or Nurse cells do?
They are supportive in nature and organize the structure of the seminiferous tubule.
Along what pathway do spermatogenic cells undergo differentiation?
As they migrate to the lumen of the seminiferous tubule.
What is spermatogenesis?
The differentiation of spermatogonia into functioning spermatozoa.
What are the 5 stages of sperm differentiation?
Spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, spermatozoa.
Describe spermatogonia. Whre are they located? What cells do they include?
Spermatogonia are the most primitive germ cell. They are located on the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule. They act as a reservoir of dividing cells called A cells. B cells continue upwards to the lumen.
What are A cells? What is their staining characteristic?
They are dividing cells that are dark staining in spermatogonia.
What are B cells? What is their staining characteristic?
They are cells that go on to migrate upward to the lumen. They are light staining spermatogonia.
What are primary spermatocytes? How common are they? What is their diagnostic characteristic? What process are they undergoing?
They are the most common cell type in germinal epithelium. They are undergoing the first meiotic division. You can see clumped chromosomes in them (DIAGNOSTIC)
What number of chromosomes do primary spermatocytes have?
Diploid
How long does the secondary spermatocyte stage last?
Very brief.
What is happening in the secondary spermatocyte stage? What is the number of chromosomes?
They are undergoing a second meiotic division. The cells are now haploid in chromosome number.
Describe the appearance of spermatids.
Round, solid, dark chromatin pattern (DIAGNOSTIC)
Where are spermatids located?
Near the apex of sertoli cells.
What connects daughter cells and spermatogonia?
Cytoplasmic briges.
What do spermatids become?
Spermatozoa
Describe spermatozoa's appearance?
Head (dark flattened nuclei) and long tails (DIAGNOSTIC)
Are spermatozoa still connected to their parent cell via intercellular bridges?
YES!
What is spermiogenisis?
The transformation of spermatid into mature spermatozoa.
Where are spermatozoa located?
At the apex of sertolic cells still embedded in the cell.
How long does it take to make a spermatozoa?
64 days.
How many cycles of seminiferous epithelium may be taking place throughout a seminiferous tubule?
6
What is going on in each quarter of the seminiferous tubule that is not in synch with the other quarters.
Spermatogentic waves.
Why are spermatogenic cells located in the scrotum?
To keep the temperature 3-4 degrees lower than body temperature since they are temperature sensitive.
What is crytorchidism? What pathology does this cause?
The condition where testis do not descend properly and remain in the body, either within the abdomen or the inguinal canal. This causes sterility.
Relatively high levels of what are needed to stimulate spermatogenisis? What produces this?
High levels of testosterone stimulated by sertoli cells and produced by leydig cells.
What is the main funciton of sertoli cells?
Provide physical and nutritional support for the spermatogenic cells.
Describe the number/distribution of sertili cells.
They are relatively few in number and equally distributed around the tubule.
What joins sertoli cells?
Tight junctions (zona occludens)
What cells give germinal epithelium organization and support?
Sertoli cells.
Describe the shape of sertoli cells.
Tall columnar with an irregular shape.
From where to where do sertoli cells reside?
Rest on a basement membrane and reach to the lumen of the seminiferous tubule.
Describe the nucleus of sertoli cells.
Oval shaped nucleus with a prominent nucleolus. (DIAGNOSTIC)
What gives sertoli cells thier irregular shape?
Spermatogenic cells embedded in their sides.
What do the lateral processes of sertoli cells together form?
An irregular membrane or sheet around the seminiferous tubule.
What 2 compartments does the sertoli cells divide the germinal epithelium into?
Basal compartment and adluminal compartment.
Where is the basal compartment? What cells are contained within it?
It is adjacent to the basement membrane and it only contains spermatogonia.
Where is the adluminal comparment? What cells are contained within it?
Above the lateral processes of the sertoli cells. It is adjacent to the lumen of the seminiferous tubule. It contains primary spermatocytes on up.
What are the functions of the sertoli cells (7)?
1) supplies nutrient to and removes wastes from the sex cells.
2) forms the blood testids barrier
3) Prevents immune reactions with sex cells of different genetic type than body
4) Produces large volumes of testicular fluid.
5) Phagocytizes the excess cytoplasm from the spermatids.
6) Produces androgen binding protein
7) Produces inhibin.
What is testicular fluid for? What produces it?
Produced by sertoli cells it washes immobile spermatozoa out of the tubule.
What is androgen bind protein for? What produces it?
Produced by sertoli cells it increases levels of testosterone in germinal epithelium.
What is inhibin for? What produces it?
It is feedback to prevent release of FSH from anterior pituitary. It is produced by sertoli cells.
What are Leydig cells AKA?
Intersitital cells.
Where are leydig cells located?
In clumps of cells in the CT space between seminiferous tubules.
What is the appearance of leydig cells? Why?
Acidophilic and foamy appearance (DIAGNOSTIC) because they are steroid producing and lots of sER.
Do leydig cells have a lot of blood vessels? Why or why not?
Lots of blood vessels because they are endocrine poriton.
What produces testosterone?
Leydig cells.
What promotes leydig cells to produce testosterone? What produces this? What is this hormone known in males?
Luteinizing hormone from anterior pituitary is the stimulus. LH is also known as intersitial cell stimulating hormone.
What concentrates testosterone in the seminiferous epithelium to stimulate spermatogenesis?
ABP (androgen binding protein) in sertoli cells.
What is the function of testosterone?
Stimulate and maintain the function of the accessory sex glands as well as develop and maintain secondary sex characteristics.
What stimulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone?
LH or intersitial cell stimulating hormone.
What stimulates sertoli cells to produce androgen bidning protein?
FSH.
What inhibits release of LH?
High levels of testosterone (Feedback)
What inhibits FSH production? What produces this?
Inhibin inhibits FSH production. It is produced by sertoli cells.
What changes occur in senile testis? (2) What remains the same?
Seminiferous epithelium loses its spermatogenic cells so only sertoli cells are left. Leydig cells are present and continue producing testosterone.
What are straight tubules AKA?
Tubuli recti.
Where are straight tubules located?
At the apex of lobules.
What lines straight tubules?
Sertoli cells only to simple cuboidal epithelium (DIAGNOSTIC)
What is the purpose of straight tubules?
They conduct spermatozoa from the seminiferous tubule into the rete testis in mediastinum.
Where is the rete testis located?
In CT of mediastinum.
What is the rete testis?
A network of interconnecting channels.
What lines/surrounds the rete testis?
Lined by simple cuboidal epithelium. There is no specialized CT surrounding the channels of the rete testis.
What are efferent ductules AKA?
Ductule efferentes
Where does the efferent ductules connect to/from?
Leave mediastinum and connects to the head of the epididymis.
What are the 10-20 channels or tubles of efferent ductules called?
The conus vasculosa.
What lines the conus vasculosa or efferent ductules?
Simple epithelium with alternating clumps of tall columnar cells with cilia and nonciliated low cuboidal cells.
What is the appearance of the conus vasculosa or efferent ductules?
Cogwheel or sawtooth appearance (DIAGNOSTIC)
What is the purpose of ciliated cells in the efferent ductules?
Move nonmotile spermatozoa.
What is the purpose of nonciliated cells in the efferent ductules?
To reabsorb testicular fluid.
What surrounds the efferent ductules?
Thin layer of CT with some smooth muscle cells in the wall of the epithelium.
What does the efferent ductules drain into?
Ductus epididymis (2)
What forms the ductus epididymis?
A single long and highly convoluted tubule.
Where is the ductus epididymis located?
On the posterior aspect of the testis.
What is the 3 portions of the ductus epididymis?
Head, body and tail.
Which part of the epididymis do the efferent ductules drain into?
The highly convoluted head.
What is the epithelium type of the ductus epididymis?
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What two types of cells are in the ductus epididymis?
Principal cells and basal cells.
Describe principal cells appearance? What do they do? (2) What is the transition of their appearance as you move toward the tail of the epididymis?
They are tall columnar with nonmotile stereocilia. They reabsorb testicular fluid (90%) and phagocytose remnants of spermatozoa cytoplasm. They also become more cuboidal as you transition towards the tail.
Where are basal cells in the ductus epididymis located? What do they look like? What is their purpose?
They have round dark nuclei adjacent to the basement membrane. They are thought to be stem cells for the principal cells.
What type of muscle is found in the epididymis wall? Where does this start? What is its orientation?
Smooth circularly oriented smooth muscle in the head.
Describe the transtion of smooth MCs as you move toward the tail of the epididymis.
More layers of smooth MC are added.
What is the purpose of the smooth muscle cells in the ductus epididymis?
Move sperm by peristaltic waves when fluid flow is reduced.
What is the purpose of the ductos epididymis? (7)
Storage of sperm in tail
Reabsorb testicular fluid
Phagocytose spermatozoa cytoplasm
Quality control (lots of sperm die here)
Provide nurients to sperm
Place where sperm finish spermiogenesis
Secrete glycerophophocholine (a glycoprotein)
Where do sperm become functional/motile?
In the ductus epididymis.
What is the funciton of glycerophosphocholine?
It inhibits capacitation and prevents sperm from being able to fertilize ovum until it enters the vagina.
How long does it take for a sperm to pass through the epididymis?
20 days
How long total does it take minimum for a sperm to get through the epididymis?
84 days.
What is the ductus deferens AKA?
Vas deferens.
What is the appearance of the lumen of ductus deferens?
Large stellate lumen (DIAGNOSTIC)
What lines the ductus deferens?
Low pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
Describe the wall of the ductus deferens.
Thin lamina propria with a thick muscularis layer.
What is the orientation of muscle fibers in the muscularis layer of the ductus deferens?
Inner longitudinal, middle circular, outer longitudinal.
What is the funciton of the smooth muscle in the ductus deferens?
Peristaltic waves propel sperm from the epididymis to the urethra during emission.
What larger structure are the vas deferns located in?
Spermatic cord.
What plexus surrounds the vas deferens?
The pampiniform plexus of veins.
What is at the center of the pampiniform plexus of veins?
Ductus deferens and spermatic artery
What is the counter current theory?
Cool blood returning from the testis cools off the warmer blood coming into the testis via the spermatic artery.
What skeletal muscle layer surrounds all the structures of the testis?
Cremastir muscle.
What is a vasectomy and what is its purpose?
Bisecting the vas deferens and tying off the ends as a firm of birth control.
Where does the vas deferens run?
Up into the abdomen posterior to the urinary bladder.
What is the region of the vas deferens just before it enters into the prostate gland?
Amupullary region.
What joins with the ductus deferens just before it enters the prostrate?
The seminal vesicles.
What forms the ejaculatory ducts?
The vas deferens and seminal vesicle.
Describe the wall/epithelium of the ejaculatory ducts.
Simple columnar eplithelium with no muscle in the walls.
Where do the ejaculatory ducts open?
Just below the seminal ridge on the posterior aspect of the urethra.
What is just between the two openings of the ejaculatory ducts?
The prostatic utricle.
What is the prostatic utricle?
A blind ended pouch of Mullarian duct (paranesonephric duct). Homologue to uterus and part of the vagina.
What is the seminal colliculus?
A bump formed by the exid of three ducts on the ridge. (Utricle and ejactulatory ducts)
Where is the membranous diaphram located?
In the urogenital diaphragm.
What is the transition of epitheliums in the urethra?
From simple columnar to stratified squamous mucosal type in fossa navicularis.
What are the 3 male accessory sex glands?
Seminal vesicle, prostate and bulbourethral.
What is required to maintain the proper secretions and epithelium of the seminal vesicle, prostate and bulbourethral?
Testosterone
Where is the seminal vesicles located?
On the posterior aspect of the urinary bladder.
What forms the seminal vesicles?
A large convoluted tube that is saccular in nature
What characterizes the seminal vesicles?
Numerous cavities of varying sizes. (DIAGNOSTIC)
Describe the wall of the seminal vesicles.
Smooth muscle in muscularis layer.
Mucosa thrown into numerous ridges and folds that give the cavities characteristic honeycomb pattern of folds (DIAGNOSTIC)
What epithelium type lines the seminal vesicles?
Low pseudostratified columnar.
What must the seminal vesicle have in order to maintain its epithelium and secretion of fluid?
Testosterone.
What percentage of semen does the seminal vesicles form?
70%
What is the secretion of the seminal vesicles rich in?
Fructose for sperm energy source.
What type of pigment does the seminal vesicles have? Why is this important?
yellow pigment, flouresces with UV light and is used for medical legal work in rape cases.
What is the largest accessory gland?
The prostate.
What covers the outside of the prostate?
A thin CT capsule.
What separates glands in the prostate gland?
A thickfibromuscular septa.
What makes up the prostate gland (gland type/number)?
30-50 branching compound tubuloalveolar glands.
What are the three regions glands of the prostate can be divided into?
Mucosal glands, submucosal glands, main glands.
Where are mucosal glnads located?
Immediately next to the urethra.
Where do mucosal glands drain?
Directly into the urethra.
What patholgy is exibited in the mucosal glands of the prostate? What is its rate of occurance?
Benign prostatic hypertrophy
40% of all males 50 years old
95% in 80 year old males.
Where are submucosal glands of the prostate located?
Slightly farther away from the urethra than mucosal glands.
What are the most peripherally located glands in the prostate?
Main glands.
Where do main glands drain?
Into the prostatic urethra in the prostatic sinus.
Where does most prostatic cancer arise?
In the main glands of the prostate gland.
What is the most common cancer of males?
Prostate cancer, adenocarcinoma.
What is the occurance of prostate cancer?
30% of males 75 years old.
What is used for detection of prostate cancer?
Blood test for prostate specific antigen (PSA)
Describe the glandular portion of the prostate.
Varying sizes and shapes to alveolar lumens (DIAGNOSTIC)
Describe the transition of the epithelium of the prostate gland from young to old?
Young = pseudostratified columnar to columnar
Older = Simple cuboidal in the alveoli with large lumens
What may be found in the lumen of ducts of the prostate gland?
Prostatic concretions (DIAGNOSTIC)
What makes up prostatic concretions? What is their staining property? Where are they located?
Composed of layered bodies, red staining, located in the lumen, they increase in size and number with age.
What is the composition of prostatic fluid? (6)
Serous
Rich in lipid
Proteolytic enzymes
Citric acid
Acid phosphatase
pH is near 7
Where are the bulbourethral glands located?
In the urogenital diaphragm.
What type of gland are bulbourethral glands?
Compound tubuloalveolar glands.
What type of epithelium lines the bulbourethral glands?
Simple cuboidal epithelium.
What type of secretions do the bulbourethral glands have?
Viscous mucus that acts as a lubricant.
Where are the corpora cavernosum located?
On the dorsal side of the penis (2)
What tissue contains the urethra?
Corpora spongiosum.
What surrounds the corpura cavernosum and spongiosum individually?
Tunica albuginea = dense CT
What surrounds the corpora cavernosum and spongiosum together?
Buck's fascia.
Where is the dorsal artery of the penis, deep dorsal veins and dorsal nerve of the penis located?
Under buck's fascia
Where does the deep artery of the penis run?
in the center of corpora cavernosum.
What is erectile tissue?
Spongy appearing tissue that is composed of fibromuscular trabecula and blood filled lacunae.
Describe the flow of blood in a flaccid condition of the penis.
Blood enters deep artery of the penis
Small amont of blood enters lacunae via helicine arteries which are normally contracted and mostly closed
Most blood is diverted into arteriovenous shunts to deep dorsal vein.
What causes the a-v shunts to constrict and the helicine arteries to relax during an erection?
Parasympathetic stimulus and nitrous oxide.
Describe the flow of blood in a erect condition of the penis.
Longitudinal muscles in helicine arteries relax, a-v shunts constrict
Helicine arteries open to flood lacunae
Pressure increases in erectile tissue
Thin walled veins running diagonally through the tunica albuginea collapse under increased internal pressure.
Cylinders become engorged and turgid.
What controls the end of an errection?
Sympathetic nervous
Describe the flow of blood after an erection.
Helicine arteries close and a-v shunts open. This decreases the amount of blood flow into lacunae. Special veins at the root of the penis slowly drain blood from the lacunae
When pressure within erectile bodies is low enough the thin walled veins in tunica albuginea reopen and the erection is lost.
What are the glands of Littre?
Mucus secreting glands along the penile urethra.
What is impotence? What causes it?
The inability to achieve an erection. Caused by vascular problems, nerve dmage, or psychological problems.
What precentage of semen is spermatozoa?
10%
How many sperm does a normal male have per mL
50-100 million
When is a man considered sterile?
When there is less than 20 million sperm per mL.
What percentage of semen is made up of the secretions of accessory glands?
90%
What is the normal volume of semen ejaculated? How many sperm are in it?
3mL, 200-300 million sperm.
What is emission? What contros it?
The delivery of spermatozoa and glandular secretions through the ejaculatory duct and into the prostatic urethra. Under sympathetic control.
What is ejaculation?
Forceful expulsion of the semen from the penile urethra.
What is the sequence of events/secretions in ejaculation? (5)
Bulbourethral glands
Prostatic secretions
Emission
Seminal vesicle contracts forcing secretions ahead
Ejaculation
What do the bulbourethral glands do?
Secrete viscous mucous which cleans the penile urethra and helps lubricate the urethra.
What do prostatic secretions do?
They are serous secretions that help sperm mobility and raises the pH of the vagina.
What is emission specifically?
When sperm move from the epididymis through the vas deferens and ejaculatory duct into the urethra.
What does the secretion of the seminal vesicles do?
Viscous and holds together everything together
Also contains alot of fructose for energy for the sperm
What causes an ejaculation?
The bulbospongiosus muscle contracts around the corpora spongiosum to force semen out of the penile urethra.