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64 Cards in this Set

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General functions fo the a male reproductive system.
A. Reprodictive: Produce and transport sperm/semen for fertilization of ovum.
B. Encocrine: Produce/secrete Androgens for male sexual organs and traits.
What are the primary sex organs of the male?
Gonads = 2 Testes
What are the secondary/ Accessory sex organs?
Epididymis
Vas Deferenses
Seminal Vesicles
Ejaculatory ducts
Prostate gland
Cowper's (bulbourethral) glands
Penis
Scrotum
Location of the Testes
L:Suspended by the Spermatic Cord within the Scrotum posterior/inferior to penis
Structure of Testes
4 x 2.5 cm ovoids weighing about 10 grams
Divided by septa into about 250-300 lobules
What is in the lobule
1-3 highly convoluted Seminiferous Tubules
A. Thick outer
Germinal epithelium layer made up of(specialized stratified epithelium)
B. Seminiferous tubules which unite to form the Rete Testes.
C. Rete Testes via several ductules gives rise to Epidydymis.
The Germinal epithelium contains 2 type of cells, what are they?
Spermatogenic cells which give rise to spermatozoa via spermatogenesis
Nurse (Stertoli's) cells which support spermatogenic cells
Stertoli's cells
Support spermatogenic cells with nourishment
Produces Inhibin that regulates the rate of sperm production.
Inhibin
Regulates the rate of sperm production.
Seminiferous tubules
Unite to form Rete Testes
Rete Testes
Via several ductules gives rise to Epidydymis.
Leydig Cells
Lay among the seminiferous tubules
Function of Testes
Spermatogenesis and Androgenesis
Spermatogenesis
Sperm production within seminiferous tubules at puberty
Spermatogenesis
Sperm production within seiminiferous tubules at the on set of puterty.
What is the spermatogenesis process?
The spermatogonid (2n)>Primary spermatocyte (2n)>Secondary spermatocyte (n)>spermatids (n)> spermatozoa(n)
Meiosis 1
Occurs during transition from primary to secondary sparmatocyte
Meiosis II
Occurs during transition from secondary spermatocyte to spermitid
Structure of Spermatozoa
a)HEAD- contains the Nucleus (23 chromosomes) and is covered by Acrosome (Lysosome)containing enzymes, e.g. Hyaluronidase
B) BODY-Contains large numbers of Mitochondria for energy.
C) TAIL- Flagelllum for propelling sperm through female system.
Spermatogenesis is stimulated by what
Folllilcle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) secreted by the Anterior Pituitary gland, Testosterone, and ABP beginning at the onset of puberty
What is Androgenesis
The production of Testosterone by Leydig Cells
A) Stimulated by Luteinizing Hormone (LH) secreted by Anterior pituitary.
B) Testosterone stimulates G/D of Primary and secondary reproductive organs,and the G/D of the secondary sexual traits such as body hair, libido and erythropoiesis.
Gubernacululm
enables the descent of the testes from the pelvic cavity by guiding the testes and the Vas deferens through the Inguinal Canal to the Scrotum
Cryptochidism
Failure of the testes to descend into the scrotum.
Epididymis
6m of tightly-coiled thread like tube
Located superior/posterior/lateral surface of the testes
Structure: Smooth muscular walls lined with ciliated columnar epithelium
Function: Sperm storage and Maturation of immature spermatozoa into viable/mobile spermatozoa.
Vas Deferens
A muscular tube 45 cm long
L: Contained within the Spermatic Cord, Which passes through the inguinal canal, superior and posterior to the urinary bladder joining ejaculatory duct of prostate.
S: Smooth muscular walls lined wigh ciliated col. epi and distal ampulla
F:propel mature sperm by peristalsis/cillary action to prostate gland
Spermatic Cord
Made up of the Vas Deferens, blood vessels, lymph vesssels, nerves,and the Cremaster Muscle
Cremasteric reflex
Pulls the testes closer to the body for proper thermoregulation of spermatogenesis (~35* C)
Seminal Vesicles
5-7 cm of finger-shaped glands
L: Join the Vas Diferens at the posterior wall of the urinary bladder
S: Specialized glandular epithelial lining
Function fo the Selminal Vesicles
Secrete thick Alkaline fluid rich in fructose and prostaglandins
A) regulates the pH of semen
B) Provides~60% of semen's volume
C) Fructose nourishes sperm
D) Prostaglandin helps sperm travel
Ejaculatory Duct
Formed by the junction of seminal vesicles and the vas deferenses
Location of the Ejaculatory Duct
Passes through superior/dorsal portion of the
prostate gland
Structure of the Ejaculatory duct
~2 cm oneg tube
Function of the Ejactulatory duct
Transport semen into the Urethra
Prostate gland
4x3 cm chestnut-shaped gland
Location of the prostate gland
Immediately inferior/juxtaposed to the urinary bladder
Structure of the prostate gland
Specialized glandular epi. surrounded by smooth muscle and conn, tiss containing ejaculatory duct and prostatoc urethra
Function of the prostate gland
A) Helps excete urine via the prostatic urethra
B) Secretes a thin alkaline fluid into the semen/urethra at ejaculation that provides ~30% of the semens volume and therefore helps establish the necessary alkaline pH of semen
Prostate disorders
Prostatitis = A bacterial infection/inflammation which impedes urination

Prostate cancer = Cancerous growth in prostate tissue
Cowper's Gland
(Bulbourethel)
A pea-sized gland located inferior to prostate gland and lateral to the urethra, made up of specialized glandular epithelium with 2.5 cm duct at the membranous urethra.
It secretes mucous-like alkaline fluid that helps nutralize the acidic urethra
What stimulates Spermatogenesis
Follilcle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)is secreted by the Anterior Pituitary gland, Testosterone, and ABP beginning at the onset of puberty
What is Androgenesis
The production of Testosterone by Leydig Cells
A) Stimulated by Luteinizing Hormone (LH) secreted by Anterior pituitary.
B) Testosterone stimulates G/D of Primary and secondary reproductive organs, G/D of the secondary sexual traits such as body hair, Libido and erythroopoiesis.
Gubernacululm
enables the descent of the testes from the pelvic cavity by guiding the testes and the Vas deferens through the Inguinal Canal to the Scrotum
Cryptochidism
Failure of the testes to descend into the scrotum.
Epididymis
6m of tightly-coiled thread like tube
Located superior/posterior/lateral surface of the testes
Structure: Smoothmuscular walls lined with ciliated columnar epithelium
Function: Sperm storage and Maturation of innature spermatozoa into viable/mobile spermatozoa.
Vas Diferens
The Vas diferens is a muscular tubing contained within the spermaticcord which passes through the inguinal canal, superior and posterior to the urinary bladder joining the ejaculatory duct of the prostate
Spermatic Cord
Consists of the vas deferns, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves and Cremaster Muscle
Cremasteric reflex
The Cremasteric reflex pulls the testes closer to the body for proper thermoregulation of spermatogenesis (~35 degrees C)
Structure and of the Vas Diferens
Smooth muscular walls lined with ciliated col. epi. with distal Ampulla.
Its function is to propel mature sperm by peristalsis/ciliary action to the prostate gland
Location and structure of the Seminal vesicles
Finger-shaped glands 5-7 cm long
made up of specialized glandular epithelial lining.
It joins the vas deferens at the posterior wall of the urinary bladder.
Function of the Seminal Vesicles
Secrete thick Alkaline fluid rich in fructose and prostaglandins
Regulates pH of semen
Provides~60% of the semen's volume
Fructose nourishes sperm
Prostaglandin helps sperm travel.
Ejaculatory Duct
Formed by the junction of the seminal vesicles and vas deferenes
It passes through the superior and dorsal portion of the prostate gland
S:Tube ~2cm long
F: Transports semen into the Urethra
Location and composition of the Prostate gland
A chestnut-shaped gland 4x3cm
L: Immediately inferior/juxtaposed to the Urinary bladder
Made up of specialized glandular epi. surrounded by smooth muscle and conn. tiss.
Function of the prostate gland
Helps excrete urine via the prostatic urethra
Secretes thin alkaline fluid into the semen/urethra at ejaculation and provides ~30% of the semen's volume and therefore, helps establish the necessary alkaline pH of the semen
Prostate disorders
Prostatitis= A bacterial infection/inflammation which impedes urination
Prostate cancer= Cancerous growth in the prostate tissue.
Cowper's (Bulbourethral) Glands
A pea sized gland inferior to the prostate gland and lateral to the urethra
Made up of specialized glandular epithelium with 2.5 cm duct at the membranous urethra
Its function is to secrete mucous-like alkaline fluid that helps neutralize acidic urethra.
Urethra
Shared by both the reproductive and urinary systems
L: Urinary, Prostatic, Membranous, and penil urethra
S: A tube ~20cm long
F: Separately passes urine or semen
What is the composition of Semen
~5-10% sperm and~90-95%alkaline fluid with fructose and prostaglandins.
What are the extrenal secondary sex organs
Scrotum and penis
Location and function of the Penis
The penis is both a urinary and copularory organ.
It hangs suspended from the perineum anterior to the scrotum and testes
F; Conveys urin at the micturition and semen during sexual intercourse (Coitus)
Structure of the Penis
A cylindrical organ containing root, shaft, glans, and prepus ~8-? cm long
The Root is the internal half of the penis
Shaft is the extrnal protion containing 3 columns of erectile tissue individually covered by a vibrous Tunica called the Albuginea. The Albuginea consists of 2 dorsal larger corpora cavernosa with dorsal and deep artry
1 ventral smaller Corpus Spongiosum containing the penile urethra
The Glans, Which is the distal enlargeed head containing many pleasure nerve endings and extrnal urinary meatus
The prepuce is the foreskin of protection by often is removed at birth.
Scrotum
A pouch of skin
L: Hanging below the groin behind penis
S: Unattached integument containing smooth muscles (dartos muscle) and a subcutaneous layer containing no adipose tissue unattached integument
It houses the testes outside the body for proper sprmatogenic temp. (~35 degrees C)
Cold stimulates the Cremaster and Dartos Muscle to contract and pull the testes toward the body for proper thermoregulation of spermatogenesis.
Erection
A parasympathetic refles during sexual arousal.
Process: Afferent arterioles entring erectile tissue dilate while efferent arterioles leaving the erectile tissue constrict- thus filling erectile tissue with blood
Ejaculation
A sympathetic propulsion of sperm at the peak of sexual arousal
Quantity= ~3-5 ml containing ~50-120 million sperm per milliliter
Process:Sympathetic spinal reflex causes proweful peristalsis within the duct system- thus propelling sperm into the vagina (?) for fertilization
Infertility
Inability to induce fertilization caused by either a deficiency of spermatozoa ( low sperm count) from cryptorchidism, ofchitis, agrochemicales, ect or anatomical defects of spermatozoa for genetics, radiaton can also cause infertility.