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54 Cards in this Set

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Gonads
testes in males and ovaries in female
Ovaries
produce female gametes or sex cells (egg cells or ova) and sex hormones
Testes
Produce male gametes or sex cells (sperm cells or speratozoa) and sex hormones
Ducts
store and transport gametes
Accessory sex glands
produce substances that protect the gametes and facilitate their movement.
Supporting structures
penis
uterus
assist the delivery and joing of gametes and in females, the growth of the fetus during pregnancy
Scrotum
supporting structure of testes
a sac consisting of loos skin and superficial fascia that hangs from the root of the penis.
Scrotum
(structure)
loose skin and conn. tissue
Scrotal raphe
a medial ridge that separates the lateral portions of scrotum.
Scrotal septum
divides scrotum into 2 sacs, each containing a single testis.
Dartos muscle
consists of superficial fossa and muscle tissue composed of bundles smooth muscles fibers
Cremaster muscle
a small band of skeletal muscle in the spermatic cord that is a continuation of int. oblique muscle, elevates that testes upon exposure to cold and relaxes in response to warmth.
Scrotum
Scrotal raphe
Scrotal septum
Dartos muscle
Cremaster muscle
Scrotum
(FUNCTION)
Support
Temp. regulation for sperm production
Testes (male gonads)
paired oval glands in scrotum
develop near the kidneys and usually begin their descent into the scrotum through inguinal canals
Development and descent (TESTES)
Begins in embryo high in post. abdominal wall
begin to descent in the later half of the 7th month of development.
Investing tissues
Tunica vaginalis
Tunica albunginea
Tunica vaginalis
A serous membrane which is derived from the peritenium and forms during descent of the testes, partially covers the testes.
Tunica albunginea
int. to tunica vaginalis is a dense white fibrous capsule composed of dense irr. conn. tissue
Lobules
divide each testis into a series of internal compartments
Cremaster muscle
suspender
Seminiferous tubules (1-3 per tubule)
3 tightly coiled tubules where sperm is produced
Spermatogenesis
process by which the seminiferous tubules of the testes produce sperm
Spermatogenesis
(process)
Sperm cells develop initially from germ stem cells known as spermatogonia. As these differentiate they go through the following stages:

spermatocytogenesis (creation of spermatocytes):
mitosis of spermatogonia into primary spermatocytes
meiosis of primary spermatocytes into haploid secondary spermatocytes
spermatidogenesis (creation of spermatids through mitosis of secondary spermatocytes)
spermiogenesis (creation of spermatozoa through further development of spermatids).
Spermatogonia
sperm production begins at the periphery of the seminiferous tubules in stem cells called _________.
Primary spermatocyte
diploid cell and have 46 chromosomes
it enlarges and then begins meiosis
Secondary spermatocyte
The two cells formed by meiosis I
each cell has 23 chromosomes the haploid number.
made up of 2 chromotids still attached by a centromere
Spermatids
four haploid cells resulting from meiosis II
Sperm cells (spermatozoa)
A mature gamete cell
develops from spermatids
Sperm cells (spermatozoa)
Head
Middle piece
Tail (flagellum)
Head of sperm
The flattened, pointed part of the sperm.
Consists of:
Nucleus
Acrosome
Acrosome of sperm
Covers the ant. 2/3 of nucleus
a caplike vesicle filled with enzymes (hyaluronidase and proteases) that help a sperm to penetrate a secondary oocyte to bring about fertilization.
Nucleus of sperm
Contains a highly condensed haploid chromosome (23)
ant. 2/3 is covered by acrosome
Middle piece
contains mitochondria arranged i a spiral, which provide energy (ATP) for locomotion of sperm to site of fertilization and sperm metabolism
Tail (flagellum)
subdivided into four groups:
neck
middle piece
principal piece
end piece
neck
the constricted region just behind the head that contains centrioles
principal piece
the longest portion of the tail
end piece
the terminal, tapering portion of the tail.
Sustentacular (sertoli) cells
secrete inhibin
Interstitial endocrinocytes (interstitial cells of leydig)
cells secrete testosterone (adrenogen)
spaces btwn adjacent seminiferous tubules are clusters of cells
Testosterone
Dev. of sex organs
Stimulates bone growth
Protein anabolism
Sexual behavior
Sperm production
Secondary sexual characteristics
Ducts that convey sperm cells(spermatozoa)
Ducts within the testes
Epididymus
Ducts within the testes
Seminiferous tubules
Straight tubules
Rete testis
Epididymus
didvided into head, body and tail portions
Efferent ducts
Ductus epididymus
Ductus (vas) deferens or seminal duct
Spermatic cord passes throught the inguinal canal
dilated "ampulla of ductus (vas) deferens" at terminal end of cord - at post. surface of urinary bladder.
In female, the round ligament passes through the inguinal canal
Ductus (vas) deferens or seminal duct
(LENGTH)
Ap. 18"
Spermatic cord consists of :
Testicular artery and vein
Autonomic neurons
Lymphatic vessels
Cremaster muscle
Ductus (vas) deferens or seminal duct
Ejaculatory ducts
ap. 1"
Formed by union of 2 ducts:
Vas deferens
Seminal vesicles
Ejaculatory ducts
(Function)
They eject sperm and seminal vesicle secretions just before the release of the semen from the urethra to the exterior.
Urethra
ap. 8"
shared terminal duct of the redproductive and urinary systems
serves as a passageway form both semen and urine
passes throught the prostate, the urogenital diaphragm, and the penis.
divides into 3 parts:
Prostatic urethra
Membranous urethra
Spongy urethra
Prostatic urethra
passes through the prostate
Membranous urethra
passes through the deep perineal muscles
Spongy urethra
passes through the corpus spongiosum
external urethral orifice
spongy urethra end here