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55 Cards in this Set

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White blood cells in the urine would be indicative of?
UTI
Red blood cells in the urine would be indicative of?
Kidney stone, renal cancer, bladder cancer, acute infection
White blood cell casts in urine?
Kidney infection
Red blood cell casts in urine?
Glomerulonephritis
Protein in the urine?
Renal disease
Causes of glucose in urine?
Diabetes
What is azotemia?
Failure to clear nitrogenous waste
Causes of high BUN?
Kidney not filtering nitrogen properly or lack of resorption
Creatinine is the breakdown of what?
Protein
What is the best test of glomerular filtration BUN or creatinine?
Creatinine
Why is creatinine the best test of glomerular filtration?
Because it is only filtered not reabsorbed
What is the most common pathogen of a UTI?
E. coli
What is uncomplicated UTI?
First documented infection in a young woman
What would be the typical age of a patient with a complaint of an uncomplicated UTI?
Young and female, sexually active, E. coli most common organism
What is complicated UTI?
It occurs in patients with abnormalities or obstruction
What would be the typical age of a patient with a complaint of a complicated UTI?
Older patient, not necessarily female, very young, organism is usually uncommon and not E. coli
What makes you think a patient has pyelonephritis?
Flank pain, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, usually starts out as cystitis
What is the most common way to get pyelonephritis?
Ascending infection, obstruction
How does a person with kidney stones present?
Red blood cells in urine, flank pain, colicky pain
What are kidney stones made of?
Calcium oxalate
What is the most common cause of acute renal failure?
Pre-renal azotemia
How might a renal cancer patient present?
Male, over 50, hematuria
What is the most common type of renal cancer?
Adenocarcinoma
When you think of renal cancer in a child you think of?
Nephroblastoma
What is a Wilms tumor?
Nephroblastoma
What are athe hallmarks of renal failure
oliguria, azotemia, uremia
Prerenal failure takes place ------ the kidneys
before
What causes prerenal failure
lack of blood flow, hypovolemia
Renal failure takes place ---- the kidneys
in the kidneys
What are causes of renal failure
hypertension, diabetes, lupus, sickle cell
Postrenal failure takes place ---- the kidneys
after
What are causes of postrenal failure
hypervolemie, urethral destruction, bladder dyfunction / obstruction in men BPH is the most common cause
What are the hallmarks of nephritic syndrome
RBC and WBC in urine, RBC casts
What are the hallmarks of nephrotic syndrome
proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia
What is poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
glomerular injury caused by antigens due to streptococcal infection, getting lodged in the glomerulus
what is the most common cause of glomerulonephritis
poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
How might a man with BPH present
hesitancy, increased frequency, urgency, nocturia, decreased stream
How do you check for urinary retention in the clinic setting
catheterization of pt
What is the difference between acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis
acute baacterial prostatitis, tender prostate, no urethral discharge, fever, chilld, dysuria, chronic bacterial prostatitis-asymptomatic, possible lower back px, elevated PSA
How would a man with urethritis present
urinary symptoms such as px with urination, penal discharge
What might be the cause of urethritis
gonorrhea or chlamydia
How does epididymis present
unilateral px all along the posterior side of the testes, scrotal px, with possible discharge
What is the most common cause of epididymitis
chlamydia
How does testiculr torsion present
acute onset of excruciating px
How do you diagnose testicular torsion
ultrasound
Why is testiculr torsion a surgical emergency
ischemia of the testes
How does testicular cancer present
painless nodule on testicle, young males 20-35
How does prostate cancer present
hard nodules felt duing prostate exam, elevated PSA
How might you tell the difference between a prostate cancer nodule and an enlarged prostate due to BPH
prostate cancer nodule is hard, enlarged prostate due to BPH would be soft and tender
How does bladder cancer present
older male, gross hematuria
What is the risk factor for bladder cancer
cigarettes
What are the risk factors for breast cancer
early menses, late onset of menopause, not having kids, fam hx, if mom had premenopausal bilateral breast CA as opposed to postmenopausal unilateral breast CA, not breast-feeding, having kids after the age of 35, increased risk, genetic mutations (BRCA1-2)
Who do we screen for breast cancer
every year after age 50, screening between age 40 and 50 is contraversial
What should younger women (20-40) do for screening
clinical breast exams every 2-3 years, self breast exams
MALE GU, MORE RENAL, BREAST CANCER
MALE GU, MORE RENAL, BREAST CANCER