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15 Cards in this Set

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MDD EPI; men vs women? what % are chronic? link to suicide? worldwide effect?
10% of men
20% of women
2/3 of all that suffer do so chronically
80% of depression is linked to suicide- 30,000 suicides/yr

major cause (soon to be #2) of disability worldwide
what is the final common pathway underlying depression? two substances, their origins, and their connectedness?
dysregulation of monoamines; serotonin from the raphe nucleus and norep from the locus ceruleus
connected via limbic systems
Explain the psychological vulnerability to depression embodied in the learned helplessness personality styles? pervasive? permanent? examples
negative coping styles that influences how we react to life/stressors

pervasive; "everything in my life sucks" after breaking up with gf
permanent- "i'll never find someone else"
What are the clinical symptoms of MDD? WHat must be caused?
MUST cause social, cognitive, or intellectual impairment
depressed mood, lack of enery, libido, lost appetite, insomnia, ahedonia, SUICIDAL ideations
what is dysthymia? how long?
depressive thoughts for two years... below baseline but above threshold for Major depressive episode
What is biolar I and bipolar II?
bipolar I = the presence of at least one manic episode/mixed episode and one major depressive is generally present

bipolar II= presence of a hypomanic episode (never a major manic episode) and generally a major depressive episode
Treatment success rates of MDD? duration of 1 event? when meds aren't working, what are some extreme therapies we can employ?
33% remit in 2/3 months
40% show no improvement
average duration = 12 months

Electroconvulsive therapy, vagus nerve stimulator
How would you define mania?
time period
behaviors
mood
WHAT must it caused?
one week period of elevated, expansive or irritable mood
don't sleep; tons of libido; gamble excessively; start things and never finish; totally impulsive

Must cause marked SOCIAL and OCCUPATIONAL impairment
Bipolar disorder Epi? How common is US? common cormorbidities? Suidice connection?
3.3 million americans and increasing
psychoses very common as are substance abuse issues 90% use stimulants- cocaine, amphetamines, cafe, etc.
WHat is the peak onset of bipolar disorder? Extent of disease in that pop?
As we age, how does disease change?
15-19 y/o, hence increased risk for psychosis, drug abuse, suicidality, etc

As we age, the length of time of an episode decreases with each age and inceases in # of episodes
What are the neurobiological causes of mania? (3 affected)
increased NOREP
inceased DOPA
decreased GABA
Mind-Body interactions...How does death rate from suicide compare to homocide and breast cancer?
suicide is much greater than homocide and comparable to breast cancer
What are some hormonal and autonomic changes that occur in mood disorders? I.E when depressed, what survival/mortality rates are impacted?
mortality rates post MI/those in nursing homes/normal adults are greater in depressed cohorts than non-depressed
Depressions effect on HR variability, platelet stickiness, immunity, and bone resorption? How SSRI's may actually counteract some of these events?
less HR variability and stickier platelets. Hence, increased risk for an MI
Decreased Immunity by driving down NK cells and cell mediated (T-cell) defenses
Decreased bone resorption leading to osteoporosis

SSRI's reduce platelet aggregation
Two large barriers to recognition of depression?
Stigma/denial "there is just no way in hell I could be depressed" I am too smart, healthy, successful, etc....

Many people don't realize they are depressed..especially in younger pops... many think it is just their "personality" or how they are