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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Culture
the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a way of life
Nonmaterial culture
the ideas created by members of society
Material culture
the physical things created by members of society
Symbols
Language
Values and beliefs
Norms
Material
the major components of all cultures (5)
Sapir-Whorf
the idea that people see and understand the world through the cultural lens of language
Equal opportunity
Achievement and success
Material comfort
Activity and work
Practicality and efficiency
Progress
Science
Democracy and free enterprise
Freedom
Racism and group superiority
Robin Williams’ ten central American
Mores
norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance
Folkways
norms for routine and casual interaction
Real – what actually occurs in everyday life
Ideal – how we should behave
Distinguish between real and ideal culture.
Invention – the process of creating new cultural elements
Discovery – recognizing and understanding more fully something already in existence
Diffusion – the spread of cultural traits from society to another
three causes of cultural change
Cultural lag
the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural system
Cultural integration
the close relationships among various elements of a cultural system
Ethnocentrism
the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture
Cultural relativism
the practice of judging a culture by its own standards
High culture – available only to the elites
Popular culture – available to average people
Distinguish between high culture and popular culture
Socialization
The lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture
Nature – instinctive human competitiveness
Nurture – behavior is not instinctive, but learned (behaviorism)
nature versus nurture
id
the human being’s basic drive
ego
a person’s conscience efforts to balance pleasure-seeking with the demands of society
superego
the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual
id
ego
superego
Freud’s model of personality development
Kinship
a social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption
marriage
a legal relationship, usually involving economic cooperation, sexual activity, and childbearing
family
a social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another, including any children
nuclear
a family composed of one or two parents and their children(conjugal)
extended
a family consisting of parents and children, as well as other kin (consanguine)
endogamy
marriage between people of the same social category
exogamy
marriage between people of different social categories
monogamous
marriage that unites two partners
polygamous
marriage that unites a person with two or more spouses
polygyny
a man with two or more spouses
polyandry
a woman with two or more spouses
patrilocality
a residential pattern where a married couple lives with or near the husband’s family
matrilocality
a residential pattern where a married couple lives near the wife’s family
neolocality
a residential pattern where a married couple lives apart from both sets of parents
patrilineal descent
a system tracing kinship through men
matrilineal descent
a system tracing kinship through women
bilateral descent
a system tracing kinship through both men and women
family is the backbone of society
structural-functional – family
family perpetuates social inequality
social-conflict – family
marriage and courtship is a form of negotiation
social exchange - family
i.Property and inheritance – men to hand down property to their sons
ii.Patriarchy – men must control the sexuality of women
iii.Race and ethnicity – endogamous marriage supports racial and ethnic hierarchies
social-conflict – family (3)
i. Socialization – parents help children become integrated, contributing members of society
ii. Regulation of sexual activity - Incest taboo
iii. Social placement – parents maintain social organization by passing their own social identity
iv. Material and emotional identity – families provide physical protection, emotional support, and financial assistance
social functions of the family (4)
a. Courtship
b. Settling in
c. Child rearing
d. The family in later life
the four stages of family life
a. Individualism is on the rise
b. Romantic love fades
c. Women are less dependent on men
d. Many of today’s marriages are stressful
e. Divorce has become socially acceptable
f. Legally, a divorce is easier to get
Identify causes for the high U.S. divorce rate (6)
a. Young spouses who lack money and emotional maturity
b. Marriage due to unexpected pregnancy
c. Children of divorced parents
d. Previous divorce
Identify risk factors for divorce (4)
a. One-parent families
b. Cohabitation
c. Gay and lesbian couples
d. Singlehood
alternative family forms
a. Who is the mother
b. In a divorce, who can decide to destroy the embryo
c. Is genetic screening ethical?
controversy of new reproductive technologies
social interaction
the process by which people act and react in relationship to others
ascribed status
social position a person receives at birth, or is given later in life
achieved status
social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort
role set
a number of roles attached to a single status
role strain
tension among the roles attached to a single status
role conflict
conflict among the roles connected to two or more statuses
Thomas theorem
the reality people construct in their interaction has real consequences for the future
ethno-methodological research
a strategy to reveal the assumptions people have about their social world
dramaturgical analysis
explores the social interaction in terms of theatrical performance
(1) Demeanor – with greater social power, men have more freedom in how they act
(2) Use of space – men command more space than women
(3) Staring and touching – done by men to women
(4) Smiling – a way to please another, usually done by women
ways in which gender influences personal performances (4)
a) Sensorimotor Stage – individuals experience the world only through their senses
b) Preoperational Stage – individuals first use language and other senses
c) Concrete Operational Stage – individuals first see casual connections in their surroundings
d) Formal Operational Stage – individuals think abstractly and critically
Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development
a) Pre-conventional – pain and pleasure
b) Conventional – distinguish right and wrong from parents and culture
c) Post-conventional – moving beyond society norms to consider abstract and ethical
Kohlberg’s three stages of childhood moral development
i) Boys – justice perspective: formal rules to define right and wrong
ii) Girls – care and responsibility perspective: judging a situation with an eye on personal relationships and loyalties
moral development as researched by Gilligan
Infancy – the challenge of trust (versus mistrust)
b) Toddlerhood – the challenge of autonomy (versus doubt and shame)
c) Preschool – the challenge of initiative(versus guilt)
d) Preadolescence – the challenge of industriousness (versus inferiority)
e) Adolescence – the challenge of gaining identity (versus confusion)
f) Young Adulthood – the challenge of intimacy (versus isolation)
g) Middle adulthood – the challenge of making a difference (versus self-absorption)
h) Old age – the challenge of integrity (versus despair)
Erikson’s eight stages of development
Infancy – the challenge of trust (versus mistrust)
Infancy – the challenge of _____ (versus _____)
Toddlerhood – the challenge of autonomy (versus doubt and shame)
Toddlerhood – the challenge of _____ (versus _____ and _____)
Preschool – the challenge of initiative(versus guilt)
Preschool – the challenge of _____(versus _____)
Preadolescence – the challenge of industriousness (versus inferiority)
Preadolescence – the challenge of_____ (versus _____)
Adolescence – the challenge of gaining identity (versus confusion)
Adolescence – the challenge of _____ _____ (versus _____)
Young Adulthood – the challenge of intimacy (versus isolation)
Young Adulthood – the challenge of _____ (versus _____)
Middle adulthood – the challenge of making a difference (versus self-absorption)
Middle adulthood – the challenge of _____ (versus _____)
Old age – the challenge of integrity (versus despair)
Old age – the challenge of _____ (versus _____)
Erickson
eight stages of development (who)
Piaget
four stages of cognitive development (who)
Mead
The I and the Me (who)
Kohlberg
three stages of childhood moral development
i) The self is not there at birth, it develops
ii) The self develops only with social experience
iii) Social experience is an exchange of symbols
iv) Seeking meaning leads people to imagine other people’s intentions
v) Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the other’s point of view
vi) By taking the role of another, we become self-aware (the I and the me
The development of self (6)