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10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nuclear Morphology (4)
1) Nuclear Envelope - inner and outer membrane of this have large pores
2) Nucleolus
3) Heterochromatin - Type of chromatin that is darkly staining and tightly packaged or coiled throughout the cell cycle and that is, for the most part, genetically inactive.
4) Euchromatin - Euchromatin is a type of chromatin that is rich in gene concentration (contrast this to heterochromatin). This type of chromatin generally appears as light-colored, it is uncoiled, and very active.
Smooth ER Characteristics (3)
-Not studded with ribosomes
-Dedicated to membrane synthesis, lipid synthesis, and drug detoxification
-Abundant in adrenal cortex and liver
Rough ER Characteristics (3)
-Studded with ribosomes
-Dedicated to synthesis of proteins for export
-Abundant in a plasma cell-secretes immunoglobins
Protein Synthesis on Free Ribosomes (Polyribosomes)
Groups of ribosomes, bound by mRNA, called polyribosomes (polysomes) are used for protein synthesis for internal utilization in cells.
Best examples - RBS precursors, basophilic erythroblasts, both have many polyribosomes dedicated to the synthesis of hemoglobin
Golgi Apparatus Structure
-Stacks of lamellae, consisting of flattened sacs of membrane
-Contains many enzymes for "finishing" proteins, meaning adding distal sugars to glycoproteins, started in the RER and destined for secretion. Therefore making the Golgi a polarized structure - materials come in and out.
Golgi Apparatus: cis-Golgi network and trans-Golgi network
-Has a convex, forming face, called the cis-Golgi network (CGN)
-Has a concave, maturing face, called the trans-Golgi network (TGN)
-Secretory vesicles bud off TGN and become vesicles of secretion product (zymogen granules)
Lysosome (5)
-what is it, produced where, used in what process, fuses with what
-Membranous sphere of hydrolytic enzymes
-Produced in Golgi Apparatus
-Used in degradation of foreign antigens, cell debris, turnover of ECM
-Fuses with phagosome to make phagolysosome
-Enzymes degrade ingested material after utilizing its advantageous material
Lysosomal Storage Diseases (2)
Congenital defects in certain lysosomal enzymes often lead to pathological accumulation of constituents b/c of failure of normal turnover. Detection of either can be found in urine.
1) Hurler syndrome-(alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency)
2)Hunter syndrome-(iduronate-sulfatase deficiency)
-Consists of 2 membranes: inner and outer
-Probably an obligate endosymbiont, derived from unicellular organisms
-Mobile within cell, found where ATP consumed
-Produces ATP from ADP and energy derived from oxidation of food substrates.
Reduced Nucleotides
Drive proton pumps, in which hydrogen ions are pushed membrane and their energy is harnessed (ATP forms) (diagram on page 17)