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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Components of cytoplasm
Cytoplasm is mostly water, but also contains proteins in solution and organelles, both membranous and nonmembranous
Components of nucleus
Nucleus contains genetic material and is surrounded by a membranous nuclear envelope
Examples of membranous organelles (6)
nuclear envelope, mitochondria, golgi apparatus, ER, lysosome, peroxisome
Examples of nonmembranous organelles (7)
microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments, nucleolus, centrioles/basal bodies, inclusions, and free ribosomes
What do all cells have and what do most cells have
Most kinds of cells have both a nucleus and cytoplasm.
ALL cells have an outer boundary, the cell or plasma membrane
Components of Cell Membrane (2)
Composed of complex lipids and proteins. The membrane maintains compositional differences between inside and outside cell. ie: protein concentration of cytoplasm is higher than outside of cell
Transmembraneous Proteins (3-4)
-found where, respond to what environment, important for what 2 things
-Found in subunits
-Formed pores in the entire cell, responded to external environment
-Very important receptors and transport proteins
-Were moving around membranes like iceberg, thus it became the Fluid Mosaic Model
Components of the Plasma Membrane (4)
peripheral proteins, integral proteins, carbohydrates, cholesterol
Freeze-Fracture-Etch Steps (5)
1) Cells are lightly fixed
2) Cells are flash frozen
3) Cells are fractured
4) After variable ice sublimation to create edges for relief, faces are coated with evaporated metal and tissue digested away chemically
5) Metal replica viewed in EM
Freeze-Fracture-Etch Results
Replica allows viewing external (E) and protoplasmic (P) surfaces of cells. One can also examine fractured lipid bilayer faces, E and P.
Difference between E-face and P-face
E-face has few intramembranous particles. P-face has many. (look at lecture ppt diagram, page 7)
Membrane Functions (4)
1) Ion pumps and ion channels
2) Hormone receptors
3) Adhesion to ECM
4) Adhesion to other cells - allows static structure to be present. This adhesion occurs because of transmembraneous proteins.
Transmembrane Transport (3)
1)Some solutes cross membranes by diffusion (steroids). This simple diffusion does not use membrane transport wheres the next 2 do.
2) Some solutes are pumped across membranes by passive transport (glucose).
3) Some solutes are pumped across membranes by ATP-dependent exchange carriers (Na, K)
Bulk Transport (3)
Cell-mediated bulk transport is an ATP-consuming process.
1) Exocytosis - membrane-bound vesicles made in and expelled from cells - proteolytic enzymes
2) Endocytosis - essentially reverse of exocytosis - membrane-bound vesicles pinched off from surface and internalized - bactera-organelles-ECM
3) Pinocytosis - endocytosis of fluids and solutes.
Membranes Compartmentalize Cells (4)
-Nuclear envelope separates nucleus and cytoplasm
-Mitochondrial membranes surround these discrete, particulate, membrane-bound organelles
-Lysosomes surrounded by membranes
-Membranes allow increased efficiency by grouping related enzymes (ie: mitochondria)