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27 Cards in this Set

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Rubella virus:

- viral family
- viral genus
Togaviridae family

Rubivirus genus
List all the members of the rubivirus genus under the togaviridae family.
Rubella virus
List all the serotypes of the rubella virus.
Only 1 serotype
What is the natural host of the Rubella virus?
Humans are the only natural host
T/F - Rubella virus can be spread via mosquitos.
False
What type of tissues are targeted with the Rubella virus?
Pantropic
Which cells die from the lytic process of the rubella virus?
None. This is not cytolytic
How many serotypes are there for the Rubella virus?
1
How many diseases does the Rubella cause and name them.
Two

Postnatal Rubella

Congenital Rubella
What is the incubation period for rubella?
16-25 days
Describe the anatomical progression of rubella.
Incubation

--> URT & Local lymph nodes

--> Viremia

(--> Fetus if pt pregnant)

-->
Posterior Cervical lymph nodes
Occipital lymph nodes
Other tissues infected*

(virus is SHED: Feces/Nasopharynx)

--> RASH: Maculopapular: Day 16 to 25

*Possible CNS spread
Rubella virus induced spread to CNS is how common?

What disease does this cause?

When would this disease manifest itself?

How fatal if spread to CNS?
Uncommon: 1 in 6000

Encephalitis

Within 7 days of rash

20% fatal
Postnatal Rubella symptoms:

- initially
- followed by
- then
- complications x3
Lymphadenopathy
(auricular and suboccipital)

Prodrome
(fever, HA, malaise, sore throat, coryza (usually mild))

Faint, maculopapular rash

Encephalitis (rare)
Polyarthritis
Arthralgia
How and when can the virus be transmitted?

What factor facilitates transmission of Postnatal Rubella?
Aerosolized particles

From before prodrome

to

14 days after rash

Infection can be asymptomatic, thus facilitates transmission.
What is the diagnostic of Postnatal rubella?
Rubella-specific IgM presence
What is the diagnostic IMMUNITY for Postnatal rubella?
1/8 HI titer
What Postnatal Rubella complication is more commonly associated with women?
Arthralgia
Rubella outbreaks:

- intervals?
- season?
- age group?
6-8 years

Spring

5 y.o. to college age
Postnatal Rubella treatment?
Symptomatic
Reinfection of Postnatal rubella does NOT result in what? x4
Will have NO:

Risk to Fetus
Shedding
Viremia
Pathogenesis/disease
Rubella vaccine:

- name
- components
- given when?
- any contraindications?
RA27/3 SC

live attenuated vaccine

at 15 months (MMR)
+
Booster (at Kindergarten)

Pregnant mothers
What population group is usually not immune to Postnatal Rubella?
Women (30%-40%)
Rubella Exanthem:

- what type of rash
- appearance/color
- starts where
- spreads to where
- duration
- cause
Maculopapular rash

Mixed appearance and color

Face

Trunks, then limbs

3 days

Immune mediated
What population group suffers more severely from postnatal rubella?

What additional symptoms might they have? and why?

What are two rare complications that can occur in adults?
Adults

Arthalgia and arthritis

Probably due to immune complexes

Postinfectious encephalopathy
Thrombocytopenia
During the disease, IgM is present for how long post infection (after viral clearance)?
6 weeks
When looking for rubella immunity or diagnosis, lab tests would also detect what?

This is important for resolve of infection.
Rubella specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes
Describe the steps involved in the testing procedure to diagnose rubella.
1. Coat with ANTI-IgM antibody

2. Add dilution of patient serum

3. Incubate
(all pts IgM Abs are trapped)

4. Wash to remove unbound serum

5. Add Rubella HA
(binds to any anti-rubella IgM)

6. Add Indicator (sheep RBC)