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28 Cards in this Set

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During inflammation, what are two property changes that we see with blood vessels?
1. Increased permeability

2. Extravasation
Increased Permeability of Vessels:

- Purpose
- Mechanism
Isolate foreign substances from further tissue contact

Macrophages & Complements
detects infection and induces mediators of dilation/permeability
Extravasation:

- Purpose
- Mechanism
- Timing
Attracts macrophages

Cytokines & Complements will alter the the properties of vascular ENDOTHELIUM which will cause circulating leukocytes to stick to vascular wall and migrate toward chemokines.

Neutrophils are present early and in large numbers

Macrophages/monocytes present a bit later but in small numbers.
Direct activation of macrophages:

- occurs from where
- via? x3
Surface of macrophage

Mannose receptor
Scavenger receptor
Toll-like Receptor
Indirect activation of macrophages:

- occurs from where
- via? x2
Secreted proteins

Mannan-binding Lectin
C1q
Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize what?
Structurally conserved molecules of microbes.
In the activation of macrophages, ALTERED GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS result in what? x2
Induction of phagocytosis

Secretion of cytokines and lipid mediators that INDUCE inflammatory response
Gamma interferons can activate what?

Where are they secreted from? x3
Macrophages

CD4 T-cells
CD8 T-cells
NK cells
Define phagosomes
Ingested vesicle of macrophages that contain engulfed particles.
What happens to the DIGESTED productus in the macrophages? x2
Exocytosed out

or

Interacts with MHC II, and presented to CD4 T-cells
Activation of Complement Cascade:

- what happens
- purpose x2
Precursor proteins become active enzymes

Allows small amount to AMPLIFY with each successive reaction

LOCALIZED reaction despite complement precursors all over body.
Function of Complement Cascade. x3
Osponization

Chemoattraction

Killing
The three complement cascade pathways all make what important protein?
C3 convertase
All complementary cascade events occur where?
On the SURFACE
What is the key protein for the complement cascade that is important for OPSONIZATION?

What does this protein do?
C3b

Binds to surface of pathogen
In the complement cascade pathway, what is the key protein that induces inflammatory response?
C5a
How can the complement cascade cause anaphylactic shock?
Overabundance of C5a
What are the four events associated with the induction of the inflammatory response?
1. Complement Cascade
2. Alteration of Vascular permeability and adhesion
3. Neutrophil recruitment
4. Induction of Proinflammatory cytokines
List four small,soluble products that act on endothelial cells to increase permeability and increase adhesion.
1. C5a
2. TNF-alpha
3. Chemokines
4. Histamines
What binds neutrophils in the endothelial tissue?
Selectin
Which chemokine activates Neutrophils?
IL-8
Which chemokine activates Monocytes?
MCP-1
Neutrophils are usually abundant where?
Blood
Describe the location and time when you would see a PEAK of neutrophils.
6 hours after induction of inflammatory process at the infected tissue (not blood)
Proinflammatory cytokines are produced by what?

List them
Macrophages

IL-1
IL-6
TNF-alpha
Acute phase proteins

- induced how
- from where
- does what
- when is it lethal
by macrophages (systemic effect)

Liver

acts like broad spectrum antibody

High levels seen during septic shock -> could be lethal
Inflammatory Immune response influences what other immune response?
Adaptive immune response
Describe what happens during the adaptive immune response.
Inactivated dendritic cells will ingest pathogen -> ACTIVATION

Once activated, will migrate to Lymphoid tissue.

There, a mature dendritic cell will present an antigen to T-cells and B-cells -> Induction of Adaptive Immune Response.