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63 Cards in this Set

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Bacteria are identified by their __________ characteristics.
Metabolic
Explain MacConkey Agar's worth based on its ingredients......

- as a differential media
- as a selective media
Differential media = LACTOSE

(thus will favor organisms that can utilize lactose via fermentation)

Selective media =
BILE SALTS & CRYSTAL VIOLET

(thus will INHIBIT gram positive bacteria, making it selective (favoring) for gram negative bacteria)
L - D

BC - S
What is complex media and when is it useful?
A media with a bunch of unknown nutrients for growth.

Useful when GROWING unknown organisms, or organisms whose nutritional requirements are unknown.
What is defined media and when is it useful?
Media where each nutrient is defined/specified.

Useful for DETERMINING the nutritional requirements of an organism.
Chemoheterotrophs:

- source for energy and carbon
- clinical significance
Organic compounds

All clinically significant fungi, protozoa, and most bacteria are these.
List the phases of the bacterial growth curve.
Lag phase
Exponential phase
Stationary phase
Decline
Define generation time.
Time it takes for a bacteria to divide
What are the basic environmental requirements for bacteria? x4
Salt
Temperature
Oxygen
pH
List/define the categories of bacteria based on temperature.
Thermophile
(can live in extreme hot temp.)

Mesophile
(can live in non-extreme temp.)
(25 - 55 C)

Psychrophile
(can live in extreme cold temp.)
List/define the categories of bacteria based on pH.
Acidophiles
(can live in acidic environment)

Neutrophiles
(can live in neutral pH environment)
(approximately 5 - 9 pH)

Alkalophiles
(can live in alkaline environment)
List/define the categories of bacteria based on oxygen.

Include the types of metabolism each uses.
Anaerobes
(can live in absence of O2)
(fermentative metabolism OR anaerobic respiration)

Aerobes
(only grows in O2)
(utilize respiratory metabolism)

Facultative
(Utilize respiratory and fermentative metabolism)
What are Aerotolerant bacteria?
Bacteria that tolerate O2, but only utilize the fermentative metabolism.
What are Microaerophile bacteria?
Bacteria that tolerate O2, but too much O2 is harmful to them.

However, they utilize respiratory metabolism.
Intestinal bacteria are:

a.) Aerobic
b.) Anaerobic
c.) Facultative
d.) Aerotolerant
b.) Anaerobic
Strep. Pyogenes are:

a.) Aerobic
b.) Anaerobic
c.) Facultative
d.) Aerotolerant
d.) Aerotolerant
E. coli are:

a.) Aerobic
b.) Anaerobic
c.) Facultative
d.) Aerotolerant
c.) Facultative
Bacterial Catabolism of carbs:

- phases
- initial pathway
- followed by
- goal x2
OXIDATIVE
(oxidation of glucose to pyruvate)
REDUCTIVE
(reduction of pyruvate)

Glycolysis

Fermentation OR Respiration

Generation of:
ATP
Metabolic building blocks
List the three oxidative pathways possible.
Embden-Mayerhof pathway (EMP)

Hexose Monophosphate Pathway (HMP)

Enter-Doudoroff (ED)
Embden-Mayerhof:

- Energy gained
2 ATP per 1 mole glucose
Hexose Monophosphate Pathway:

- Energy gained
- Provides what else? x2
1 ATP per 1 mole glucose

Pentose
NADPH
Entner-Doudoroff:

- Energy gained?
1 ATP per 1 mole glucose
Fermentation:

- Energy gained
- End product
- Why is end product significant?
None

Varies depending on organism

Useful for identification
Methyl Red test:

- Tests for what?
- List example of positive
Mixed acids, dropping pH

E. coli
Voges-Proskauer (VP) test:

- Tests for what?
- List 4 examples of positives
Acetyl-methyl carbinol

Serratia
Haffnia
Enterobacter
Klebsiella
Aerobic respiration:

- Energy gained
- pathways involved
36 - 38 ATP per 1 mole glucose

Glycolysis
TCA
Electron Transport Cycle
TCA cycle:

- catabolic or anabolic
- which bacteria has this
Amphibolic

Only aerobic bacteria have complete cycle
Electron Transport Cycle

- energy gained
- final electron acceptor
3 ATP per 1 mole NADH

O2
For MacConkey Agar, the function of the Lactose....

- to measure?
Lactose utilization
For MacConkey Agar, describe what the bacteria does in its utilization of lactose.
Bacteria imports lactose (disaccharide)

Metabolizes glucose using FERMENTATION

This produces acid
For MacConkey Agar, the utilization of the Lactose....

- shows what visual result
- results indicate what
Pink color dye is seen

Lactose utilization involves fermentation which produces acid.

The acid changes the pH which will manifest the dye color
For MacConkey Agar, the function of the Bile Salts & Crystal Violet is?
INHIBIT the growth of Gram Positive

ALLOW the growth of Gram Negative
T/F - Most bacteria can be easily cultured outside their natural environment.
FALSE

>90% of bacteria can NOT be cultured outside their natural environment
What are the types of Solid media? x3
1. REGULAR
(Non-selective or Non-differential)

2. SELECTIVE

3. DIFFERENTIAL
What are the types of Liquid media? x2
1. COMPLEX

2. DEFINED
MacConkey Agar is selective for what type of organisms?
Gram Negative

They live
Bacteria can withstand extreme pH values that their own proteins can NOT due to?
Adaptation
Bacterial Catabolism involves a central role for?
Glucose
Describe the Oxidative phase of glucose metabolism in bacteria.
Oxidation of Glucose to Pyruvate
What is the purpose of the Oxidative phase of glucose metabolism in bacteria.
To generate energy
Describe the Reductive phase of glucose metabolism in bacteria.
Reduction of Pyruvate
What is the purpose of the Reductive phase of glucose metabolism in bacteria? x2
1. Maintain overall Ox-Redox BALANCE

2. RECYCLING of NAD
Do all bacteria have Reduction phase following Oxidation phase?

If not, then what are the exceptions AND what occurs in place of the Reduction phase?
NO

Bacteria that have a complete TCA cycle

Further Oxidation for Pyruvate occurs
AND
NAD recycled via another mechanism
Glycolysis Basic Facts

Phosphorylation occurs at what level?
Substrate level phosphorylation
Glycolysis Basic Facts

Efficiency?
Not very efficient
Glycolysis Basic Facts

Why is Glycolysis not very efficient?
Lots of CARBON utilized

Lots of ENERGY REMAINS in End Product
Glycolysis Basic Facts

Do all bacteria utilize the same glycolytic pathway?
NO

Different bacteria utilize different glycolytic pathways
AEROBIC RESPIRATION - Basic Facts

Pyruvate from Glycolysis enters what cycle to produce what?
TCA cycle

NADH
(high energy electrons)
AEROBIC RESPIRATION - Basic Facts

The production of NADH (via TCA) goes where?
Electron transport chain

Eventually being passed to O2
(producing lots of ATP)
AEROBIC RESPIRATION - Basic Facts

What is the primary end result?
Produce LOTS of Energy
Which organisms are the ONLY ones to have a COMPLETE TCA cycle?
Aerobic bacteria
In the TCA, the NADH/FADH2 is produced due to what initial event involving what molecule?
Oxidation of Acetyl-CoA
In Anabolic reactions, E. coli can synthesize ALL cellular components from what? x6
Glucose

P source
N source
S source

Some Trace Metals
Some Salts
What is the causative agent for Syphilis?
Treponema Palidum
Treponema Palidum MUST be grown where?
Rabbit testicles
What is the causative agent for Leprosy?
Mycobacterium Leprae
Mycobacterium Leprae can ONLY be grown where?
Armadillo feet
Compare energy yields of Fermentation vs. Respiration
Fermentation --> 2 ATP / mole of glucose
(EMP)

Respiration --> 38 ATP / mole of glucose
Primary goal of Fermentation generally?
Recycle the NADH from Glycolysis to NAD
In Fermentation, is the end product always the same for all?
NO

End product depends on bacterial species
Anaerobe organisms utilize what to recycle NADH to NAD?
Fermentation

or

ANAEROBIC Respiration
What is 'Anaerobic Respiration?'
Use of Electron Acceptors other than O2
In general what are the basic requirements for growth in bacteria in terms of Inorganic substances? x6
P
Mg
S
Trace elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, etc)
N
K
Besides Inorganic compounds, what else is needed for growth as a basic requirement?
Vitamins & Growth Factor