Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/27

Click to flip

27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the difference between congenital and heritable
Congenital is seen at birth.

Heritable is seen later on in life.
What is penetrance and what does it explain?
Frequency of expression of a genetic trait in individuals carrying the responsible gene.

Differences among MZ twins.
Chromosomal abnormalities. x3
1. Nondisjunction

2. Deletion

3. Translocation
Gene abnormalities. x4
1. Mutation
2. Deletion
3. Insertion
4. Inversion
What are the goals of genetic investigation in Psychiatry. x4
1. Specify genetic etiology
2. Specify non-genetic etiology
3. Validate boundaries
4. Develop methods of prevention and treatment.
What is an Adoptee study?
Study of children of disordered parent raised in a normal adoptive family.
What is a Cross-fostering study?
Children from a normal background reared in a family with a disordered parent.
What is an Adoptee family method study?
The study of adoptive and biological relatives of disordered adoptees.
What is concordance rate?
Frequency of sharing a trait between relatives.
If a disorder is familial, what would you see in the concordance rate?
Higher risk of disease in first-degree relatives

No discrimination between environment vs genetic influence.
If environment is main determinant of a disorder, what would you see in the concordance rate?
Equal risk between MZ and DZ twins.
If genetic factors dominate, what would you see i the concordance rate?
MZ twin should have significantly higher risk than DZ twin.
In general, what can be said about the mode of transmission of a psychiatric disease?
Multifactorial
What is the gene affected in Huntingon's?
Huntingtin
What is the mode of transmission of Huntington's?
AD
What is the gene affected in Lesch-Nyhan's?
HGPRT (purine synthesis)
What is the mode of transmission for Lesch-Nyhan's?
X-linked
Describe the cosegregation of schizophrenia with bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and drug abuse. What does this prove?
No cosegregation in families.

Thus supports genetic component of schizophrenia.
What is the mode of inheritance of Schizophrenia?
Unclear, probably polygenic.
Predisposing genes of Schizophrenia. x3
1. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)

2. Mutation at residue 108 (Val-Met)

3. Simple mutations associated with efficiency of prefrontal cortical response.
According to genome scans, the locus of schizophrenia is where on DNA?
22q11
Major Depression & Bipolar:

- Mode of transmission?
- MZ vs. DZ
No clear genetic linkage.
Could be familial.

MZ has higher risk
Prevalence for Depression
ADD
Substance abuse
Anxiety disorder
Social functioning disorder

- mode of transmission
No genetic linkage

Likely a complex multifactorial
What serum is decreased in depressed patients?
BDNF
What gene confers susceptibility to bipolar disorder?
BDNF gene
What disorder has 0% concordance rate among DZ twins.
Panic disorder
Describe the genetic evidence of the following:

- Somatoform/sociopathy
- Personality traits
- Alcoholism
- Tourette's syndrome
Weak genetic evidence

Weak genetic evidence

Strong familial

Strong familial