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32 Cards in this Set

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Terminal half-life of THC
Varies from 1-4 days
Elimination of THC from systems for non-chronic users.
Up to 5 weeks
Elimination of THC from system for chronic users.
Up to 80 days
List the four endogenous cannabinoids.
1. Anandamide (AEA)

2. 2-Arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG)

3. 2-Arachidonoyl glycerol ether

4. Virodhamine
Most endogenous cannabinoids are what kind of receptor affector?
Agonists
Endocannabinoids as Neuromodulators acting as a negative or reverse feedback signaling molecule:

- triggering stimulus?
- does what to what receptor?
- results? x2
Increase in postsynaptic neuronal Calcium levels

Activates presynaptic CB1 receptors

Inhibition of calcium channels
Decrease in NT release
List brain regions with HIGH abundancy of receptors. x5
1. Cerebellum
2. Basal Ganglia
3. Cerebral Cortex
4. Hippocampus
5. Nucleus accumbens
Discuss the receptor levels of cannabinoids in the amygdala and hypothalamus.
Both intermediate levels
Discuss the receptor levels of cannabinoids in the thalamus.
Low levels.
Both CB1 and CB2 receptors

- coupled though what proteins?
- Negatively coupled to?
- Positively couple to?
Gi/o proteins

Adenylate cyclase

MAP kinase
CB1 receptors are coupled with Gi/o proteins to what?
Ion channels
CB1 receptors act through Gs proteins to do what?
Activate adenylate cyclase
CB1 receptors are usually found where? and what do they do?
Nerve terminals

Modulate NT
Non-CNS effects of MJ:

- Heart rate
- BP
- Respiratory
- Male endocrine
- Female endocrine
Tachycardia

Orthostatic Hypotension

Bronchodilation

Decreased testosterone, testicular weight, spermatogenesis

Decreased LH, FSH, prolactin, growth hormone, and ACTH
Our immune system has what type of cannabinoid receptor?
CB2
Tolerance is based on what activity?
Adenylyl cyclase activity
Therapeutic uses for MJ. x4
Multiple Sclerosis
Analgesia
Weight control
Emesis and nausea
Up and cumming uses of MJ. x2
Neuroprotection

Autoimmune diseases
What is the main reason why antiemetic use of MJ is often unused?
Immunosuppressive effects via CB2
What is the pathway involved in the use of MJ for food intake?
Mesolimbic reward pathway.
Traditional hallucinogens (psychedelics)

- character x2
- examples x3
- what does it NOT do?
Perceptual distortion
Introspection

LSD
Mescaline
Psilocybin

Memory problems
Psychosis
Entactogen

- character x2
- example
Hallucinogen
Stimulant

MDMA (ecstasy)
Dissociative Agents

- examples x2
Ketamine
PCP
LSD

- Mechanism
- Physical effects x7
- Duration of effects
- Overdose potential?
- Tolerance potential?
5-HT postsynaptic agonist

Hypertension
Hyperthermia
Tachycardia
Mydriasis
Dry Mouth
Appetite loss
Tremors

8-12 hours

Low to NO overdose potential

Rapid tolerance build up
LSD Treatment:

- For acute bad trips
- For persistent adverse reaction
Benzodiazepines & Barbituates

Neuroleptics
Mescaline (Peyote):

- mechanism x2
- physiological effects
- psychic effects
- adverse effects x2
Serotonin agonist
Dopamine agonist

Sympathomimetic

Similar, but milder than LSD

Paranoia and fear
Psilocybin:

- what is it?
- mechanism
- physiological effects
- psychic effects
- adverse effects x3
Active ingredient in mushrooms

Serotonin agonist

Sympathomimetic

Similar, but milder than LSD

Flashbacks
Agitation
Panic Attacks
MDMA (ecstasy):

- mechanism
- physiological effects x2
- psychic effects x2
- physical effects
- adverse effects x4
- chronic effects x3
Increases (mainly) serotonin, dopamine and NE release

Energizing
Sympathomimetic

Distortions in time & space
Enhanced enjoyment from tactile experiences

Hyperthermia

Sleep problems
Confusion
Anxiety
Depression

Cognitive impairment
Memory impairment
Neurotoxicity
Phencyclidine (PCP or Angel dust)

- mechanism x3
- overdose?
- psychic effects x4
Sigma receptor agonist
NMDA receptor antagonist
NE & Dopamine reuptake inhibitor

High potential

Psychosis
Hallucinations
Paranoia
Disordered thinking
PCP:

- low dosages x3
- high dosages x7
Sympathomimetic
Numbness
Loss of coordination

Low BP
Low Pulse
Low Respiration
Nausea/Vomiting
Blurred vision
Dizziness
Drooling
Give two examples of anticholinergic drugs
Scopolamine
Datura (Jimson weed)
What are the symptoms of anticholinergic drugs? x7
Mydriasis
Delirium / Hallucination
Flushing
Hyperthermia
Dry mouth/skin
Ileus / Urinary retention
Tachycardia / BP fluctuation