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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The face is formed from what?
Neurocranium

Viscerocranium
The maxilla and mandible arise from which pharyngeal arch?
1st
What does the stomaduem become?
Oral cavity
Describe what cranial neural crest cells do in development.
They migrate into head, neck, and pharyngeal arch mesoderm in three streams.

Each stream differentiates into:
- Cranial Nerve Ganglion
- Mesenchyme

These form into skeletal and connective tissue characteristic of that arch.
What are the major playas in stimulating proliferation of Neural Crest cells in the area?
Sonic Hedgehog

FGF8
Front of skull (including face) is derived from where?
Mesenchyme from Neural Crest
Posterior skull is derived from where?
Paraxial Mesoderm
Carotid artery comes from what embryological artery?
Arteries of Pharyngeal arch #3
The Right Subclavian artery comes from what embryological artery?
Right artery of Pharyngeal arch #4
The Pulmonary artery comes from what embryological artery?
The Right artery of Pharyngeal arch #6
The Aorta comes from what embryological artery?
The Left artery of Pharyngeal arch #4.
The Ductus Arteriosus comes from what embryological artery?
The Left artery of Pharyngeal arch #6
Describe the formation of the Aorta.
The superior half of the Truncus Arteriosus will break off, while the attached artery of pharyngeal arch #4 thickens.
Describe the formation of the Pulmonary trunk.
Lower part of the Truncus Arteriosus will detach from the aorta.
Describe the development of the vagus nerve in embryological events.
Recurrent laryngeal branch of Vagus loops around 6th aortic arch artery.

On the RIGHT side, the 6th aortic arch artery will regress,

causing the pharyngeal nerve to ascend and loop around the 4th Arch artery (subclavian)
List the cranial nerves.
Trigeminal (V)
Facial (VII)
Glossopharyngeal (IX)
Vagus (X)
Define SVE
Axons of lower motor neurons which innervate skeletal muscles derived from the Pharyngeal arches.
How can six pharyngeal arches become four Cranial nerves?
1st becomes V
2nd becomes VII
3rd becomes IX

4th and 6th combine to become X

5th is vestigial
What are the cartilages associated with the pharyngeal arches?
1st - Meckel's

2nd - Reichert's

3rd - Hyoid bone

4th and 6th - Larynx
Describe the structures developed from Meckel's cartilage?
Mandible

Maxilla

Malleus

Incus
Describe the structures developed from Reichert's cartilage.
Stapes

Styloid process

Stylohyoid ligament

Lesser horn of hyoid
Describe the structures developed from hyoid bone (cartilage of 3rd arch)
Greater horn of hyoid

Body of hyoid
Describe the structures developed from the cartilage of the 4th arch.
Thyroid
Describe the structures developed from the cartilage of the 6th arch.
Cricoid
Describe the development of neural crest cells to muscle.
They are not involved, you homo
List the muscles developed from the 1st pharyngeal arch.
Temporalis
Masseter
Pterygoids (medial & lateral)

Mylohyoid
Anterior Belly of Digastric
Tensor Tympani
Tensor Veli Palatini
List the muscles developed from the 2nd pharyngeal arch.
Muscles of facial expression
Posterior Belly of Digastric
Stylohyoid
Stapedius
List the muscles developed from the 3rd pharyngeal arch.
Stylopharyngeus
List the muscles developed from the 4th pharyngeal arch.
Muscles of:
- pharynx
- larynx
- soft palate

Except for:
- stylopharyngeus
- tensor veli palatini
All skeletal muscles derived entirely from?
Mesoderm
Describe the formation of the internal ear.
Ectoderm
induced by the notocord,

then the paraxial mesoderm

results in formation of
Otic Placode

This becomes Otic vesicle

which becomes the internal ear and its structures
Describe what forms the middle and external ear.
Develops from:
- pharyngeal pouch 1
- pharyngeal cleft 1
What is the tympanic membrane made from?
Ectoderm
Mesoderm
Endoderm
The auricle is derived from what?
Pharyngeal arch 1 (anterior) and arch 2 (posterior)
What does the Rubella infection do to ear?
During weeks 7 & 8,

will cause defects in inner ear (organ of corti)

Thus will result in permanent congenital deafness.
Describe the innervation of the auricle.
Anterior portion -> Trigeminal

Posterior portion -> Cervical plexus (C1 to C4)
Most pharyngeal arch defects are caused by what?
Insufficient amounts of Neural crest cells and other multifactorial factors.
Describe Treacher-Collins Syndrome.

- Etiology
- Affects which part?
- Symptoms
Autosomal Dominant

1st Arch syndrome

Mandible and facial hypoplasia

Malformation of ears

Cleft Palate

Faulty dentition
Describe Agnathia

- Etiology
- Affects which part
- Symptoms
Congenital defect

1st Arch syndrome

Failure of lower jaw to form

Failure of external ears to migrate to neck region.
What does pharyngeal pouch #1 develop into?
Auditory tube (endoderm)

Middle Ear Cavity (endoderm)
What does pharyngeal pouch #2 develop into?
Tonsillar Epithelium (endoderm)
What does the pharyngeal pouch #3 develop into?
Thymus

Inferior Parathyroid gland
What does the pharyngeal pouch #4 develop into?
Ultimobranchial body

Superior Parathyroid
Describe DiGeorge Syndrome

- Etiology
- Affects which part?
- symptoms
Congenital - chromosome 22 del.

Pharyngeal arches 3 and 4 fail to completely differentiate

Partial or fully incomplete thymus and parathyroids

Causing immunodeficiency and hypocalcemia
What forms the Anterior Pituitary?
Rathke's Pouch

Neuroectoderm of Hypothalamus