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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Tissues of the nervous system
1. Neurons
2. Neuroglia
Define neurons
Major structural and functional unit of the nervous system
Define neuroglia
Major supporting and nurturning component of the nervous system
What are the morphological classification of neurons?
1. Multipolar
2. Bipolar
3. Psuedounipolar
In the spinal cord, the butterfly-shaped central cord is what?
Gray matter
What is the gray matter made out of?
Cell body
In the spinal cord, what is the outer periphery called?
White matter
What is white matter made out of?
Ascending or descending axonal processes.
What are the functional classification of neurons?
1. Sensory
2. Interneurons
3. Motor
What are some other miscellaneous classification of neurons?
1. Transmitter used
2. Types of action produced
3. Length of axon
(Golgi type I or II/Projection neuron)
Sensory neurons have what type of neurons in it?
Psuedounipolar and bipolar
Interneurons have what type of neurons in it?
Motor neurons have what type of neurons in it?
Bipolar and Pseudounipolar are almost always what type of neurons?
Sensory neurons
Describe the role of Sensory neurons.
These are input neurons that conduct information from the external environment to the CNS.
Describe the role of Inteneurons.
They connect input neurons (sensory) with output neurons (motor). Sensory neurons synapse with interneurons, which in turn will communicate with other parts of the CNS.
Describe the role of motor neurons.
They go out to muscles.
Describe type I Golgi axons.
Neurons with really long axons.
Describe type II Golgi axons.
Neurons with short axons that synapse locally
What are the two subcategories of astrocytes?
1. Protoplasmic
2. Fibrous
Protoplasmic astrocytes are found where?
Gray matter of the CNS
Fibrous astrocytes are found where?
White matter of the CNS
Functions of Astrocytes. x3
1. Blood Brain Barrier
2. Metabolism of NT's
3. Potassium ion maintenance for CNS AP generation.
Function of oligodendrites.
Produces myelin sheaths
Function of microglia.
Macrophage activity in CNS
Function of Ependymal cells
Specialized epithelial lining for the ventricles of brain, which secrete CSF
What are the glial cells of the CNS?
Ependymal Cells
What are the glial cells of the PNS?
Schwann cell
Satellite cells
Schwann cell function?
Produce myelin in PNS
Satellite cell function?
Support neurons in ganglia
Schwann cells are found where specifically?
PNS axons
Satellite cells are found where specifically?
PNS cell bodies
What is a brain ventricle?
Hollow spaces in the brain filled with fluid
The left and right ventricles have what structures associated with it?
1. Body
2. Anterior horn
3. Posterior horn
4. Inferior horn
The two lateral ventricles will connect to what other ventricle?
The third ventricle.
What is the connection between the two lateral ventricles with the third ventricle?
Foramen of Monro
What is the connection between the third and fourth ventricle?
Cerebral Aquaduct
What is the Choroid Plexus
A layer of specialized ependymal cells (simple cuboidal) that line the third ventricle and part of the fourth, which is heavily vascularized and secretes CSF.
What are the four types of synapses?