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50 Cards in this Set

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What does it mean for skeletal dysplasia to be proportionate?
Equally affects trunks and extremities
What does it mean for skeletal dysplasia to be disproportionate?
Unequally affects trunk and extremities.
Achondroplasia is what type of dysplagia and how common is it?
Disproportionate dwarfism and most common form of dwarfism
What is the gene (and type of mutation) involved in achondroplasia?
Point mutation in FGFR-3
What are the characteristics of achondroplasia?
Spinal Stenosis

Trident hand

Disproportionate dwarfism
Define dystrophy
Condition affecting growth and development due to extrinsic factors - hormonal and metabolic
Etiology of Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy
Abnormality in gene encoding dystrophin
Characters of Duchenne's. x3
1. Normal at birth but gradual deterioration after 18 months of age.
2 Calf psuedohypertrophy
3. Gower's maneuver
Etiology of OI.
Connective tissue disorder due to mutation in gene for Type I collagen
Characters of OI. x3
1. Bone fragility
3. Abnormal dentinogenesis
2. Blue Sclerae
Most common children's skeletal deformity
In toeing
Out toeing
In metatarsus adductus, what is the differential dx.
Clubfoot
Overactive abductor hallucis
Internal tibial torsion
In metatarsus adductus, what is the treatment?
Parent education
In Clubfoot, what are the clinical features?
Plantar flexion
Forefoot adductus
Heel varus
In clubfoot, what are the differential diagnosis?
Idiopathic vs Positional
Idiopathic vs Neuromuscular
In clubfoot, what is the treatment?
Manipulation/Casting

Surgery
What is femoral anteversion?
Internal rotation > External Rotation
What is tibial torsion?
Lateral Malleolus is in same plane or anterior to Medial malleolus
Prior to age 4, in-toeing/out-toeing is most common due to what?
Femoral Anteversion

Tibial Torsion
How do you treat in-toe/out-toe?
90% correct themselves spontaneously.
Genu Varum characters at birth and at 2-3 years of age.
Normal variant newborn
Spontaneous correction at age 2-3
Treatment for Genu Varum
Education
When is Genu Varum serious?
Severe is persistent after age 3
For severe Genu Varum, r/o what?
Blounts and Crickets
With pes plano valgus (flatfoot), what test do you run?
Flexibility test
What is the treatment of pes plano valgus?
If flexible, none

In rigid, check for bone deformities (congenital vertical talus and tarsal coalition)
DDH frequency
1:1,000
DDH risk factors. x4
First born
Female
Breech
Positive family hx
Tests for DDH. x4
Ortalani
Barlow
Galeazi
Abduction
What is the Ortalani test?
Reduction test.

Femur flexed and abducted to reduce hip
What is the Barlow test?
Test to determine if hip is dislocatable.

Femur flexed and adducted, with posterior pressure to displace hip.
SCFE - associated with what disorder?
Endocrine disorder
SCFE - symptoms?
Painful EXTERNAL rotation deformity of hip.
SCFE - treatment?
Surgical pinning
SCFE - diagnotic tool?
AP/LAT x-ray
Legg Perthes etiology
Idiopathic necrosis of femoral head
Age range for Legg perthes
2-12
Frequency of legg perthes
Male:females 4:1

Unilateral 90%
Clinical symptoms of Legg-Perthes.
Limp

Ipsilateral knee pain

Decreased ROM

Painful internal rotation
Legg=Perthes tx.
Bracing and surgery
Define Scoliosis
Lateral curvature of spine > 10 degrees
Classification of scoliosis
Idiopathic (progressive during growth)
Congenital
Neuromuscular
Rx for Idiopathic scoliosis.
Observation
Bracing
Surgery
Tx for congenital scoliosis
surgery
Rx for neuromuscular scoliosis.
Surgery
What is osetomyelitis?
Infection in metaphyseal location
What infection is the most common in osteomyelitis
Staph
Labs for Osteomyelitis
Increased:

Temperature, WBC, ESR, CRP
Tx Osteomyelitis. x4
Culture/Sensitivity
Antibiotics
Aspiration
Surgical drainage
What is direct extension from adjacent osteomyelitis?
Septic arthritis