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24 Cards in this Set

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Describe the bones of osteoporosis.
NORMAL Mineralization

Decreased Bone Mass

Increased Bone fragility
Describe type I and type II osteoporosis.
Post menopausal

Senile
Which osteoporosis is most prevalent?
Type I
Which osteoporosis is related to the decline in kidney production of vitamin D?
Type II
What population group is most susceptible to osteoporosis?
White people from Northern Europe
Describe bone development during 20's to late 30's.
Early 20's to early 30's
(OsteoBLAST activity > Resorption)

Late 30's
(Resorption > Osteoblast activity)
Thus bone loss
Decrease of estrogen does what?
Increases osteoclast activity
Why is the trabeculae bone most susceptible?
Due to high surface:volume ratio
DEXA:

- stands for
- determined by
- normal scores
- other scores
Dual Energy X-ray Absorption

WHO

0 to -1

-1 to -2.5 (osteopenia)
< -2.5 (osteoporosis)
For women with a uterus, what would you give her for osteoporosis? Why?
Conjugated estrogen/estradiol

WITH

Progestational agent.

To prevent endometrial hyperplasia + endometrial carcinoma
SERM:

- stands for
- given to
- why x2
- name of its drug
- why better than regular estrogen?
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator

Post-menopausal osteoporotic women

Prevents bone loss
Lowers serum cholesterol levels

Raloxifene

Estrogen-like effect, but also has inhibitory effects on breast and ENDOMETRIUM
Biophosphanates:

- given to whom
- why
- how does it work
- name of drugs xw2
Osteoporotic pts.

Increase bone density

Affinity for hydroxyapatite crystals

Alendronate Sodium
Risedronate Sodium
What drug is now approved for osteoporotic men?
Alendronate
Calcitonin:

- how administered?
- evidence of decreasing fx
Nasal spray

none
Bone formation marker

Bone resorption marker
Serum Osteocalcin

NTX
What is a good sign that bone resorption is decreasing?
There is a 50% decrease of plasma or urine NTX.
Pathology of osteomalacia/rickets.
Failure of bone mineralization

at

ZONE of CALCIFICATION
Signs of Rickets? x5
Soft bone on baby's head

Bony necklace

Curved bone

Big, lumpy joints

Bow-legged
What is the typical presentation for osteomalacia/rickets?
Vague, unspecificed pain to bones
Imagine of osteomalacia/rickets would manifest what?
Looser's Transformation zones

Widened Physis
What is Looser's Transformation Zones?

What is it indicative of?
Radiolucent stress fractures

with unmineralized osteoids

Osteomalacia/rickets
Lab studies for Rickets/osteomalacia would show what?
Increased Alkaline Phosphatase
Paget's Disease:

- Population most affected
- Typical presentation
- Major imaging presentation
White males

Clinically silent

"Cotton Wool" skull
Paget's Disease

- Lab studies would show what?
Increased Serum Alkaline Phosphatase

Increased Urine Hydroxylysine

Increased Urine Hydroxyproline