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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

- #1 cause of death of what group?
Under 40
Most common injury
limb injury
Most lethal injury
head/visceral injury
#1 accidental death
#1 Non-fatal death
List the distributions of trauma.

Include characteristics of each.
1. First hour
(lethal, most deaths)

2. Hour 1 to 4
(Death by blood loss, "Golden hour")

3. Two weeks and beyond
(Death by complications)
List the components of the INITIAL ASSESSMENT for trauma victims.

Primary Assessment

Secondary Survey

Initiation of Definitive Care
List the components of the Primary Assessment for trauma victims.
1. Airway + C-spine control

2. Breathing + ventilation

3. Circulation

4. Disability (neurocheck)

5. Exposure
List the components of the Secondary Survey for trauma victims.


Past Medical Hx

Last time of meal/drink

Events/environment related to injury
List the characters of the stages in Trauma treatment.
Stage I - Tx at scene

Stage II - Tx at ER

Stage III - Early Tx for Cardiac and Abdominal complications

Stage IV - Tx for Musculoskeletal complications

Stage V - Long term rehab
What is the criteria for IMMEDIATE fracture treatment? x2
Vascular compromise
(due to position during injury)

(from open fx)
Describe the application for a tourniquet during a hemorrhage.

Use sterile pressure dressing
It is best to stabilize fractures in what position?
How much force is required for reduction?
Immobilizing a bone comes before or after reduction?
What is the difference between strain and sprain?
Sprain includes supporting structure of joint (ligaments).

Strain includes the stretch/tear of muscle or tendon.
How do you use to differentiate between a sprain and a strain?

Describe the surrounding circumstances involved.
X-ray (for fractures)

MRI/PET (for complete ruptures)
What is the difference between subluxation and dislocation?
Subluxation is where the articular surfaces are still partly apposed.

Dislocation is the complete displacement of the joint surface.
Fractures occur due to what three circumstances?
Traumatic event

Repetitive stress

Abnormal weakening of bone
(due to disease/tumor)
What is unique about bone healing?
Only tissue that heals without scarring
List the classifications of fractures.
1. Location

2. Orientation/extent of fracture line

3. Displacement amount of fragments

4. Skin/soft tissue integrity
Diagnosis of fractures are confirmed with what?
What is the rule of thumb when X-raying fractures?
Always get ABOVE and BELOW the bone involved.
List the phases of Secondary healing.
Inflammation Phase

Reparative Phase
(callus formation)

Remodeling Phase
What is important about secondary bone healing in fractures?
It is the proper method of healing for open fractures.
Define delayed union.
Failure of fracture to consolidate in the usual time required for normal union to take place.
Define non union.

When does this happen (timeframe)?
Process of bone healing ceases after failure to produce union.

Greater than six months
Describe Type I of Open Fractures.
Wound less than 1 cm
Describe Type II of Open Fractures.
Wound greater than 1 cm
Describe Type III-A of Open fractures.
Moderate soft tissue injury

Adequate soft tissue covering fractured bone
Describe Type III-B of open fractures.
Extensive soft tissue injury

Periosteal stripping

with significant bone exposure
Describe Type III-C of open fractures.
All of Type III-B and Type III-C

and including

Vascular injury
Amputation risk