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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Articular Cartilage composed purely of what?
Type II and Aggrecans
What type of cartilage is Articular cartilage?
Hyaline cartilage
Articular cartilage is specialized for what?
Frictionless load bearing
Think of Articular cartilage as what?
Suspended endochondral ossification.
Characters of Articular Cartilage. x6
1. Biochemically reactive
2. Low Cellularity (ECM dominates)
3. Avascular
4. Hypoxic
5. Aneural
6. Hyperosmotic
Name and describe the zones of articular cartilage.
Tangential - thin fibrils parallel to surface, elongated chondrocytes

Transitional - Less organization of fibers, rounded cells

Deep zone - vertical fibers, columnar cells
What does the tidemark do?
Demarcates calcified cartilage between deep zone and subchondral bone.
In Articular Cartilage, how does the territorial matrix differ from Interterritorial matrix?
Interterritorial matrix is larger and more organized collagen fibers.
Repair prognosis of superficial cartilage defect
Does not repair.
Cartilage damage usually leads to what condition?
What shows promise in fibrin clots at 6 months post-op
IGF1 used to recruit MSC's (Mesenchymal Stem Cells)
Describe OA cartilage. x7
1. Decreased Proteoglycans
2. Increased Osteophytes
3. Fissures
4. Fibrillation
5. Necrosis
6. Cysts
7. Chondrocyte clusters
Age related changes in cartilage aggregates. x2
1. Biochemical function decreases
2. ECM renewal capacity decreases
OA is progressive loss of what?
Articular cartilage
T/F - OA is an early event
False - It is a late event
T/F - OA is systemic.
False - OA is local
Define Synovial tissue.
Layer of lining cells on interior of joint capsule, tendon sheath, bursae, and surface of ligaments (areas of compression)
T/F - Synovial tissue is a true membrane.
False - Not a true membrane, but rather a loose network of cells embedded in connective tissue.
What does synovial tissue provide? x2
1. Metabolic support for avascular cartilage
2. Lubricating synovial fluid
Describe structure and function of Type A synoviocytes.
Macrophage like

Removes debris
Describe structure and function of Type B synoviocytes.
Fibroblast like

Secretes HA
What does Hyaluronic Acid contribute?
High viscosity, filtration of plasma
The synovium mediates what?
What are the categories of synovitis?
Inflammatory and Noninflammatory joint diseases
What are the characters of inflammatory joint disease?
1. Primary
2. Acute inflammation
3. Categorized as monoarticular or polyarticular.
Give an example of monoarticular inflammatory joint disease.
Bacterial Septic Arthritis
Give examples of polyarticular inflammatory joint disease.
Reumatoid Arthritis, Gout, Lupus.
What are the characteristics of noninflammatory joint disease?
1. Secondary
2. Slowly progressive
3. Localized
Give an example of noninflammatory joint disease.
In synovitis, hyperplastic pannus does what? x4
Secretes inflammatory cytokines

Secretes proteolytic enzymes

Recruits leukocytes

Degrades cartilage
In inflammatory synovitis, what would prove as positive inflammation in arthrocentesis?
High WBC, high neutrophils, and low viscosity
Hemarthrosis found in arthrocentesis indicates what?
Trauma or PVNS
Give two examples of benign Synovial Tumors.
1. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS)
2. Synovial Chondromatosis
Describe Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS).
Benign Synovial Tumor

Proliferation of synovium nodules with inflammation
Describe Synovial Chondromatosis.
Benign Synovial tumor

Proliferation of hyaline cartilage nodules in synovium.


Nodules may undergo conversion to bone.
What would a histological slide of OA reveal?
Follicular arrangement of infiltrating lymphocytes
Define Anisotropic.
Mechanical properties depending on direction of force applied
Define endoligament
Vascularized loose connective tissue surrounding collagen fibers IN ligament.
Define epiligament
Vascularized loose connective tissue on surface of ligament.
What type of nerves would you find in epiligament?
Proprioceptive nerve fibers
Describe the direct ligament attachment to bone.
Four zones: Ligament, Calcified Fibrocartilage, Uncalcified Fibrocartilage, and Bone.
Describe the indirect ligament attachment to bone.
Fusion of ligament with periosteum
In ligaments, 70-80% of dry weight is what?
In ligaments, 70% of wet weight is what?
In ligaments, 90% of collagen is what type of cartilage?
Type I
What contributes to ligament elasticity?
Fibrillin and elastin via elastic microfibrils
Describe the degree of ligament damage (sprains).
Grade 1 (mild)
Grade 3 (rupture)
Describe MCL repair.
Inflammation, Proliferation, and Remodeling.

Requires prolonged healing time (about 1 year)
Describe ACL repair.
Not repairable.

Must be replaced by tendon graft.
What allows for coordination of ligament and bone growth?
Remodeling at insertion site of ligament.
Describe Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.
Genetic modification to collagen genes.

Results in joint laxity.
Describe Marfan's Syndrome.
Genetic defect in Fibrillin gene.

Results in joint laxity, abnormal height, blindness, and aortic dilation and aneurysm.
Describe Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.
Genetic modification to collagen genes.

Results in joint laxity.
Describe Marfan's Syndrome.
Genetic defect in Fibrillin gene.

Results in joint laxity, abnormal height, blindness, and aortic dilation and aneurysm.