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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the four general properties of Innate Immunity which differs from Acquired Immunity?
1. Rapid
2. Invariant
3. No Memory response
4. Limit on Specificity
What innate immune components are induced by viruses? What do these components do?
Interferon alpha
Interferon beta
Interferon gamma

Inhibit viral replication
What innate immune components are induced by bacteria? What do these components do?

Leads to inflammation
Macrophages can be further activated by what?
IFN alpha
IFN beta
What are the two receptor families recognized by NK's.
1. Killer Inhibitory Receptor (KIR)
2. C-lectins
Cancer cells and virus infected cells have more or less MHC I complexes?
Reduced levels of MHC-I and/or altered MHC-I complexes results in avoidance of what and susceptibility of what?
Avoidance of death by CD8 T-cells. Susceptibility for lysis by NK cells.
NK cells secrete what to create a pore on target cell surface?
What in the nucleus of macrophages cells needs to be activated for cytokine production? What activates it?
NF kappa B (a nuclear transcription factor) is activated by LPS (Lipopolysaccharide)
T/F - Neutrophils require activation?
What are some causes for neutrophil increase in blood?
1. Extreme exercise
2. Infection
3. Severe psychological stress
4. Inflammation
What are eosinophils attracted to?
What are the enzymes released by NK cells that cause apoptosis?
Neutrophils are usually in the blood. If you see them in the tissue, what does this mean?
What activates eosinophils?
Inflammatory mediators or allergens with IgE
Eosinophillia is an indicator of what?
Parasitic infections
Activation of basophils leads to what?
Activation of basophils releases what?
Serotonin, Histamine, Eosinophil chemotactic factor
The acute phase response is induced by what cytokines?
TNF alpha
Acute Phase Response proteins produced primarily in?
What are the five acute phase proteins?
1. Fibrinogen
2. Mannan-binding protein
3. C-reactive protein
4. Serum Amyloid A protein
5. SP-A and SP-D
What are the four cardinal signs of inflammation?
1. Heat
2. Redness
3. Pain
4. Swelling
What causes heat from inflammation?
The fever-inducing cytokines (IF-1, IF-6, TNF alpha)
What causes redness from inflammation?
Local blood dilation
What causes pain from inflammation?
Stimulaiton of pressure sensitive nerves by swelling and release of prostaglandins.
What causes swelling from inflammation?
Blood vessel dilation
What might be a 5th cardinal sign of inflammation?
Loss of function
What is the systemic effect of IL-1?
Fever and production of IL-6
What is the systemic effect of TNF-alpha?
Fever, mobilization of metabolites, and shock
What is the systemic effect of IL-6?
Fever and production of acute phase response proteins.
What are two characteristics seen in systemic shock?
Decreased deposition of fat.

Increased fatty acid oxidation.
What cell produces all the pro-inflammatory cytokines?
What cytokine can lead to cachexia and sickness behavior?
TNF alpha
What cytokine can lead to can contribute to fatality in sepsis?
What acquired immune response cytokines enhance inflammation?
Ab or T-cell cytokines
Activation of HPA (Hypothalmic Pituitary Adrenal) axis leads to what?
Increased cortisol and decreased cytokines.
Lacking which type of immunity system will lead to the largest increase of microorganisms?
Innate immunity