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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How do you make ACh?
Choline + Acetyl CoA

With Choline Acetyl Transfer
Where do you find muscarinic receptors?
Postganglionic parasympathetic fiber
What blocks muscarinic receptors?
Anti-muscarinic agents
What is an example of an anti-muscarinic agent?
Atropine
Where do you find nicotinic receptors? x3
1. Autonomic ganglia (of sympathetic and parasymp.)

2. Adrenal Medulla

3. Nueromuscular junction (of skeletal muscle)
How do you block nicotinic receptors in the autonomic ganglia and adrenal medulla?
Ganglionic blockers
How do you block nicotinic receptors in the neuromuscular junction?
Neuromuscular blockers
Muscarinic agonists do what to heart in terms of SA node and AV node?
SA - Reduced rate of firing (Bradycardia)

AV - Slow conductance (increase refactory period)
Muscarinic agonists do what to blood vessels?
Vasodilate
Muscarinic agonists do what to GI?
1. Increase tone and motility of stomach and intestines.

2. Relax sphincter
Muscarinic agonists do what to eye? x2
Pupil contraction

Ciliary muscle contraction (fixed for near vision)
Muscarinic agonists do what to lungs?
Constriction of bronchi
Muscarinic agonists do what to exocrine glands?
Stimulate secretion
Nicotinic agonists do what to Autonomic ganglia?
Stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic (in high dose)
Nicotinic agonists do what to adrenal medulla?
Release of epi and norepi (requires high dose)
Nicotinic agonists do what to skeletal muscle? x2
Depolarization

Contraction
What do choline esters do?
Make ACh less susceptible to inactivation, so longer duration of action.
What are some therapeutic uses for choline esters? x3
1. Postoperative GI atony
2. Urinary retention
3. Wide angle glaucoma
What are three contraindications for choline esters?
1. Hyperthyroidism
2. Asthma
3. Peptic ulcer
What are some therapeutic uses for cholinomimetic alkaloids?
1. Open angle glaucoma
2. Antiemetic agents in CA treatment (decrease N/V)
3. Diagnostic/research tool.
What are the two functional binding sites of AChE?
1. Anionic subsite
2. Esteratic subsite
For cholinesterase inhibitors, the choline portion binds with what subsite?
Anionic subsite
For cholinesterase inhibitors, the acetic acid portion binds with what subsite?
Esteratic subsite
What is a sign of muscarinic toxicity?
Wheezing respiration

and miosis
What is the primary cause of death in Organophosphorous toxicity?
Respiratory paralysis
AChE activity is regenerated from cholinergic drugs when?
Only when new enzyme is synthesized.