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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Give two examples of glycoproteins.
1. Fibronectin
2. Laminin
If collagen is the fibrillar component of ECM, then glycoproteins can be considered the what?
"Bonding" agents, or amorphous materials that bind to the fibrillar components.
Describe the structure of fibronectin.
Dimer connected at carboxyl terminus with disulfide bonds.
What are the domains of fibronectin?
RGD and EDA and/or EDB
Where are fibronectin's made? x 2
Plasma fibronectin made in liver.

Cellular fibronectin made a wide variety of cells.
Where is fibronectin found? x 2
1. Basement membrane
2. Interstitial matrix
How is there a wide variance of fibronectins?
Alternative splicing on both chains
What happens in knockout studies with absence of fibronectin?
Embryo-lethal in development
What crosslinks fibronectin to molecular components of blood clots.
Plasma transglutaminase (Factor 13)
What are MSCRAMMs (microbial surface componenets recognizing adheisve matrix molecules)
Bacterial cell surface proteins that enable bacteria to binde to fibronectin.
Describe the shape of a laminin.
Cruciform shaped heterotrimer.
What are the components of a laminin that it must have?
1. alpha chain
2. beta chain
3. gamma chain
Which chain in laminin has the globular domain on it.
Alpha chain
T/F - each of the chains for a laminin come from the same gene.
False - Each chain is a result of a different gene product.
How does variations occur with laminin?
Variation occurs from "mixing and matching" different chains. Very little splicing occurs
Which domain of laminin is responsible for binding both laminin and Type IV collagen in basement membranes?
Entactin (Nidogen)
What is responsible for the coiled coil self assembly configuration in laminin and what stabilizes this?
The heptad repeat motifs of the coiled coil domain (especially in the alpha chain). Stabilized by disulfide bonds.
Laminin heterotrimer combinations are dependent on what?
Tissue specificity
How many laminin combinations are there?
Which ECM component is responsible for tissue morphogenesis, such that a mutation might be embyrolethal?
What is the first laminin isoform to be expressed during early development?
Laminin 1,1,1
Give an example of a disease associated with laminin mutation.
Pierson's Syndrome - crazy eyes (Laminin B2 mutation)
What is the most complex, elegant, and "hypervariable" ECM with an attitude.
Proteoglycan variability is based on what? x 5
1. Alternative splicing in core proteins
2. Alternative splicing outside of core proteins
3. Different core protein motifs (35+)
4. Different GAG's on core protein
5. Modification of GAG's by cell.
What are the four families of proteoglycans?
1. Basement Membrane PG
2. Cell Surface PG
3. Hyalectans
4. SLRPs (Small Leucine-Rich Repeats)
T/F - The carbohydrate assembly for proteoglycans are N-linked.
False. N-linked is for glycoproteins which have carbs as a branched, high-mannose oligosaccharide.
What are GAG's (Glycosaminoglycans)?
Carbs on proteoglycans
Where are GAG's formed?
In Golgi (one at a time)
What type of pattern is seen in GAGs?
Linear repeats of disacchardie subunits. (Uronic acid-hexosamine)n
What is the common linker for GAG's, and what is it attached to?
Glucoronic Acid - Galactose - Galactose - Xylose.

Xylose is attached to Serine.
What are the two combinations that can occur from the common linker of GAG's?
Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate

Heparin/Heparan sulfate
What carbs are in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate?
1. Glucoronic acid and N-acetyl Galactosamine.

2. Glucoronic acid and N-acetyl Glucosamine.
Hyaluronic Acid has repeating disaccharides that resemble what?
What is unique about Hyaluronic Acid's repeating disaccharides?
It is NEVER sulfated biatch!!!!
What is unique about where Hyaluronic Acid's repeating disaccharide is made?
You biatch!! It is NEVER assembled in the Golgi.
What actively extrueds HA as a polymer?
HA synthase
T/F - Hyaluronic Acid is NEVER covalently bound to a core protein.
Mutha fucka TRUE!
What exactly is a Hyaluronic Acid?
A unique GAG from either heparan or chondroiton GAG's.
Describe the EXACT size of hyaluronic acid?
It is very large...compared to other GAGs
Give an example from the Hyalectin family.
What is aggrecans composed of?
100+ chondoitin GAGs
Give an example from the SLRP family.
Give an example x 3 from the Basement Membrane PG family.
Perlecan, Bamacan, and Leprocan.
What aggregates form the bulk of cartilage?
Aggrecan and HA.
What can aggrecan/HA aggregates do and why?
Due to high ionic strength, they can act as a molecular sponge to sequester large amounts of water and absorb shock for resiliency.
Perlecan shaped like what?
String of pearls.
Multifunctions of perlecan in respect to it's domains. x 5
Domain I - binds to GAGs
Domain II - binds to lipids
Domain III - binds to cell via RGD
Domain IV - dimerization
Domain V - self assembly
Perlecans can bind to growth factors via what? x 3
1. Heparan sulfate GAG's
2. Directly to core protein
3. FGF binding protein
Decorin is shaped like what?
Decorin function. x 2
Plays a role in collagen fibrilogenesis.

Modulates activity of growth factor via binding to TGF beta.
What is the strongest organic acid in the body and why?
Proteoglycans, due to negative charge from sulfate group.
What ECM plays an important role in the filtration role of the kidneys?
Uncontrolled Diabetes mellitus affects the biosynthesis of what?