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28 Cards in this Set

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Why is glycogen more advantageous than fat? X 3
1.) Fat is not MOBILIZED as quickly.
2.) Fat can not provide energy under ANAEROBIC conditions.
3.) Fat can not be easily converted to glucose to BUFFER blood glucose.
What is the problem with storing glucose monomers?
It would require such a high concentration in the cell, that the cell would BURST from osmotic pressure.
Why is glycogen more advantageous than glucose monomers? X 1
Glycogen reserves in intracellular would cause NO OSMOTIC pressure problems
Define glycogen in terms of its structure.
Branched chain homopolymer of D-glucose
T/F - Synthesis of glycogen requires ATP only.
False. Requires ATP and UTP.
How much glycogen is in resting muscle?
400 grams (1 - 2% net weight)
How much glycogen is in the "fed" liver?
100 grams (6 - 8% net weight)
Weight of glycogen molecule.
100 million daltons
How do glycogens exist in the cell's cytoplasm.
GRANULES
What does a granule contain?
Enzymes for glycogenesis and glycogenolysis.
What are the steps involved in glycogen synthesis, not including enzymes?
1.) Isomerization
2.) Activation by UTP
3.) Priming by Glycogenin
4.) Extention by Glycogen Synthase.
5.) Branching
When I need me some suga.
I Am Pimping Every Bitch, Every Bitch, Every Bitch.
In the isomerization step of glycogen synthesis, what is the enzyme that is needed?
Phosphoglucomutase
Mutation from glucose 6 phosphate to glucose 1 phosphate.
In the activation step of glycogen synthesis, what is the enzyme that it needed?
UDP-glucose phosphorylase
UTP and Glucose 1 Phosphate are coming together, while releasing pyrophosphate
In the priming step of glycogen synthesis, what is the enzyme that is needed?
Glycogenin
In the extension step of glycogen synthesis, what is the enzyme that is needed?
Glycogen synthase
In the branching step of glycogen synthesis, what is the enzyme that is required?
Glycosyl (4-6) transferase
Where do you see ATP investment in glycogen synthesis?
Going from glucose to glucose 6 phosphate.
Where do you see UTP investment in glycogen synthesis?
In the activation step
Glyogen synthesis is driven by what subsequent reaction?
Hydrolysis of pyrophosphate.
UTP loses a pyrophosphate, but how is it still a UDP (and not a UMP)?
Uses the P from glucose 1 phosphate
What is a self-glucosylating enzyme?
Glycogenin
Where does glycogenin add glucose?
On TYROSINE 194 of protein
Where does glycogenin TIE the glucose to?
What primes the function of glycogen synthase?
Glycogenin attached to eight glucose molecules.
Explain the mechanism of glycogen extention?
In the presence of glycogen synthase, the anomeric carbon(C1) of UDP-glucose forms a glycosidic bond with the hydroxyl oxygen on the reducing end (C4) of the glycogen chain.
Explain the mechanism of glycogen branching.
Glycosyl (4-6) transferase will break a large linear chunk to a Carbon 6 location creating a (alpha 1-6) branchpoint
Describe how glycogenin and glycogen synthase work together. 5 steps.
1.) Glycogenin associates with glucose via UDP-glucose.
2.) Glycogen than associates with glycogen synthase.
3.) The glucose chain is extended to eight.
4.) Glycogen synthase takes over; dissociating from glycogenin, and extending linear glycogen.
5.) Branching occurs; afterwhich glycogen synthase falls off, while glycogenin remains attached.
UDP-glucose is also starting point for what? X 2
1.) Glucuronic acid transfer
2.) Ascorbic acid synthesis
What are the effects of branching in glycogen? X 3
1.) Increase reaction (b/c 2 reducing ends)
2.) Increase density of polymer
3.) Increase hydration/solubility of polymer.
There have been an increase in HD tv REACTIONS