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27 Cards in this Set

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What is the importance of PHYSICAL compartmentalization in mitochondria?
1. Maximizes surface area
2. Minimizes diffusion distance
What does adding CN do to mitochondria?
Inhibits cytochrome oxidation -blocks O2- (IV) thus halts ATP synthesis and electron transport.
What happens when you add venturicidin or oligomycin?
Inhibits ATPase complex, but not the electron transport.
What does addition of DNP or FCCP do?
Uncouples the electron transport and ATPase, by allowing H+ to leak back into inner matrix.
Thermogenin is what?
Uncoupling protein (UCP)
Where is thermogenin found?
In brown fat of newborns or hibernating bears
How does thermogenin work?
Bypasses the ATPase, so that H+ is able to leak, allowing HEAT to be created.
Salicylic Acid does what? Symptoms of OD
Uncouples OX PHOS leading to H+ leaks. This causes fever in asprin OD
What is the rate limiting (slowest step) in OX PHOS?
ATP release from complex
On the FoF1 ATPase, what is reversible?
ADP <-- --> ATP
What is the most energetically expensive part of OX PHOS?
Dissociation of ATP from complex.
What are the three conformations of ATPase?
1. Empty (alpha and beta state)
2. ADP (alpha and beta state)
3. ATP (alpha and beta state)
How many subunits are there on F1 of ATPase?
9 subunits
What is the P/O of NADH?
2.5
What is the P/O of succinate?
1.5
What is P/O?
The number of ATP per atom
T/F - There is a tranporter for NAD(P)H
False
Where does the malate-aspartate shuttle occur?
Liver, Kidneys, and Heart
What type of NADH shuttle does the brain use?
Glycerol 3 Phosphate
What does the malate-aspartate shuttle do?
Shuttles NADH from cytoplasmic across the mito membrane.
How does the reducing equivalents from glycolytic and Pentose pathway cycle get into the mitochondria?
Malate - Aspartate shuttle.
(Malate/alpha ketogluterate and Glutamte/aspartate)
How does glycerol 3 phosphate shuttle work?
Delivers reducing equivalents from OUTSIDE using FAD and passing them to coenzyme Q
Give numerical values for each
Answers
Two common diseases associated with mitochondrial mutations
LHON and MERRF
What is defective in LHON?
Electron transport
What is defective in MERRF?
mitochondrial tRNA
What are the three enzymes for respiratory burst in macrophages/neutrophils?
1. Superoxide dismutase
2. NADH Oxidase
3. Myeloperoxidase