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57 Cards in this Set

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sanitation
reduce the number of microbes on equipment, surphases to a safe level by public health standards
Refrigeration
2-8 C ___static
freezing
0 C or less ___static, -20 C no microbial metabolism
microfiltration
removal of microbes from item (liquids that are heat sensitive and air) uses a membrane filter with pore sizes that are uniform for bacteriology 0.45 for viruses 0.1 or less
HIgh Osmotic Pressure
hypertonic environment (jam, jelly, brine) ___static mode of action -- cells will shrink = plasmolysis
chemical method antiseptic
used on tissue to decrease number of vegetative microbes
Radiation
UV targets DNA 2560A (most damaging wavelength) causes structural changes in the DNA has poor penetration uses limited to air and surphases
ionizing radiation
x-rays, gamma rays(short wavelength) has good penetration mode of action -- form free radicals which damage DNA and other cell components used as disinfectant at low doses
Infectious prion protein
PrP
prion diseases in animals
scrapie -- disease of sheep and goats uncoordinated jerky movements, itching cant eat or walk and then death. mink encephalopathy -- deer and elk, chronic wasting disease (mad cow disease)
_____static
inhibits growth does not kill
chemical disinfectants
used on surphases to decrease microbes
asepsis
treatments to control sepsis
degermation
removal of microbes from skin
Abnormal PrP
infectous has different shape, not inactivated very readily by protease, can interact with normal protein and change to the abnormal shape
disinfectants
treatment of surphase to destroy vegetative microbes
levels of chemical methods
high -- kills all organisms except endospores intermediate -- kills microbacteria, most bacteria and most viruses low -- kills some viruses and bacteria
antibiotics/chemotheraputic agents
selective toxicity harm microbe but not host
physical methods of microbial control
heat, cold, radiation, dessication, and high osmotic pressure
TDP thermal death point
temp required to kill population of bacteria in 10 mins
Heat
good physical method
Dessication
drying (removing water) ___static
TDT thermal death time
time it takes to kill population of bacteria at given temp
concentration of exposure
higher concentration = higher effectiveness
most mesophelic bacteria, fungi, and viruses are killed at
about 10 mins @ 80 C
autoclave
steam under pressure steam 100 C + pressure 15 lb per sq inch (increases temp to 121 C) to achieve sporility expose for 15-40 mins
time of exposure
longer exposure time the greater the effectiveness
pastuerization
heating food to destroy vegetative microbes primarily used in the dairy and brewing industry
boiling water is
not reliably sporicidal
sepsis
damage to tissue due to microbes of their toxins
______cide
kills
sterile
free of all life forms and infectious agents
Prion
1983 proteinatious infectious proteins (agents)
narrow spectrum
effective on few or single microbes
antagonism
2 drugs together have decreased effectiveness than if used alone
LTH
low temp holding 60 C for 30 mins
broad spectrum
effective on may microbes
Temperature
increase temp = increase effectiveness
HTST
high temp short time 72 C for 15 seconds
prophage will replicate when
the host bacterium replicates population (colony) all infected with prophage
UHT
ultra high temp 150 C for 1-2 seconds
material treated
organic mater can decrease effect of chemical (blood, pus, dirt)
inceneration
ignite and burn item (sterilization of loops and needles)
lysosomes
3 viral nucleic acid
chromosome = prophage
makes repressor protein
repressor protein blocks transcription of other viral genes
Dry heat
damage to proteins can achieve sterility at 160-170 C for 1-2 hours, heat stable but could not be damaged by water
nature of microbe
endospores are very resistant
prion diseases
found in animals and humans fatal, spongiform enaphalopathies (brain will have holes like a sponge, and protein fibers) symptoms neurological
prophage decrease
repressor protein leaves chromosome
Normal PrP
prion protein, signaling function in the brain inactivated by protease enzyme
lysogenic conversion
repressor protein does not block all virus genes MRNA -- transcription translation = protein from virus gene bacterium has new characteristics
moisture is present by
protein inactivation primarily
prion diseases in humans
Kuru -- Fore people of New Guinnea (cannabolism) Creutzfeldt-Jakob -- spurratic, inherited, medical procedures associated with VCJD from eating contaminated meat
synergism
2 drugs given together have greater effectiveness than sum of individuals
antiseptics
treatment on skin to preven sepsis
synthetic drugs are
lab synthesized
chemotherapy
chemicals that can interfere with the growth of microbe at concentrations tolerated by the host (selective toxicity)
antibiotic
synthesized by living organisms for bacteria