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69 Cards in this Set

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The Two Parts of the Lymphatic System
1. Lymphatic Vessels
2. Lymphatic Tissues and Organs
Transport escaped blood fluids back to blood
Lymph Vessels
House phagocytic cells and lymphocytes (agranular WBC's)
Lymph. Organs
Drainage vessels that return 3L interstitial fluid to blood/day
Lymphatic Vessels
In the lymphatic vessels the interstitial fluid is called?
Lymph
The lymphatic vessels return?
3L interstitial fluid to blood/day
The lymphatic vessels are (blank) weaving between tissue cells
blind-ended (lymph capillaries)
Lymph Vessels follow blood vessels-but not found in?
Bones, Teeth, Bone marrow, CNS (fluid drains into CSF)
Lymphatic Vessels are (1).
-Walls are overlapping endothelial cells-form valve flaps-only open (2).
1. Very Permeable
2. inward
Endothelial cells anchored to surrounding tissue by (1). These prevent (2).
1. Collagen filaments
2. Vessels from collapsing from pressure
Specialized lymphatic capillaries
1. Lacteals-in villi of intestinal mucosa-absorb digested fats from intestine-->fatty lymph called chyle that gets delivered to blood system.
The 3-tunics of collecting vessels are similar to veins, but (1-3)?
1. Have thinner walls
2. have more Valves
3. Anastomose more
Collecting vessels in skin?
Travel with superficial veins
Collecting vessels get there blood supply from?
vasa vasorum
Deep collecting vessels travel with?
Arteries
Collecting vessels fuse to form?
Trunks
Examples of Lymphatic Trunks?
Lumbar Trunk
Bronchomediastinal Trunk
Subclavian Trunk
Jugualar Trunk
Intestinal Trunk
The two ducts in the thoracic region are?
Right Lymphatic Duct
Thoracic Duct
Drains Lymph from right side of head + thorax and arm
Right Lymphatic Duct
-Drains lymph from body
-Formed from enlarged sac cisterna chyli
-Drains lymph from R+L lumbar and intestinal trunks
-Runs upward draining fluid from left side of body
Thoracic Duct
Each lymphatic duct empties lymph into the (1) at junction of (2) and (3).
1. Venous circulation
2. Internal jugular vein
3. Subclavian Vein
Transport of Lymph requires?
-No Pump
-Skeletal+Respiratory Muscles
-Valves
-More sporadic than flow in veins
Swelling due to a blockage of the lymph passages?
Lymphedema
(____) Clusters along lymphatic vessels where they merge to form trunks?
Lymph Nodes
The three most common areas where lymph nodes are found?
1. Inguinal
2. Axillary
3. Cervical
The 2 functions of lymph nodes?
1. Filter microorganisms + debris from lymph-not delivered to blood stream
2. Activate the immune system-lymphocytes in lymph nodes monitor for antigens.
Structure of a Lymph Node?
-Mostly 1" bean
-Surrounded by a dense fibrous capsule of connective tissue
-Strands of connective tissue. Extend inward (trabeculae) + divide node into compartments.
T cells temporarily rest here as circulate thru: Blood-nodes-lymph. system
Outer cortex
-Cortex thins and Tissue forms extensions
-Contains T+B cells
Medullary Cords
-Found throughout node
-Crisscrossed with reticular fibers that house macrophages
-As lymph flows thru sinuses macrophages digest foreign matter - Cleaning lymph
Lymph Sinuses (Channel)
Reticular connective Tissue Found Here
Lymph Sinuses (Channel)
When fluid from the tissues fails to return to the lymph vessels (____) results?
edema
Can be scattered around the body in organs and conn. tissue?
Lymphoid Tissue
Large collections of lymph. tissue are found in?
Lymph Organs
Lymphoid tissue type?
Reticular Connective Tissue
Lymphoid tissue functions to (____)?
1.
2.
Protect the body
1. Proliferation site for lymphocytes.
2. Ideal surveillance point for lymphocytes and macrophages.
What lives on the reticular fibers?
Macrophages
What circulates between the blood system and connective tissue?
Lymphocytes
Name the lymphoid organs
-Lymph Nodes
-Spleen
-Thymus
-Tonsils
The largest lymphoid organ
Spleen
Lymphoid organ located to the left side of abdominal cavity below the diaphragm
Spleen
Served by splenic artery and vein
Spleen
Site of lymphocyte proliferation, immune surveillance and response?
Spleen
Really boosts the immune system. Also serves to cleanse blood-removes aged and defective blood cells and platelets.
Spleen
Stores breakdown products of RBC's (iron) for later use?
Spleen
Site of RBC production in fetus and stores blood platelets
Spleen
Houses macrophages which removes debris, bacterial toxins
Spleen
The spleen has an (1) fibrous capsule and the trabeculae extend (2).
1. Outer
2. Inward
-Lymphocytes in reticular fibers
-found around branches of splenic arteries
Area called white pulp
-Rest of splenic tissue
-Mostly involved in disposal of debris.
Red Pulp
What happens when the spleen is removed?
Usually not a problem. The liver and bone marrow take over most of its functions.
-Found in lower neck
-Extends down partially covers heart
-Most active in childhood
-Stops growing in adolescence
-Atrophies as we age
Old age-fibrous+fatty tissue
Thymus
The Outer cortex of the thymus contains?
Densely packed, dividing T-lymphocytes-No B cells
Most thymic cells are?
Lymphocytes
The inner medulla of the thymus contains?
-fewer lymphocytes
-Hassall's corpuscles
Areas of degenerating cells-function is unknown.
Hassall's corpuscles in the inner medulla of the thymus.
Functions of the Thymus
1. T lymph. maturation-therefore is only lymphoid organ that does not directly fight antigens.
2. Stroma (basic internal structural framework of an organ) of thymus is Thymocytes (star-shaped epithelial cells NOT retic. fibers.
-secrete hormones: thymosin and thymopoietin
-involved in maturation of T cells.
-Simplest lymphoid organ
-Pairs
-Appear as Swellings in mucosa
Tonsils
-Posterior Oral cavity
-Largest and most often infected
Palatine tonsils
Base of tongue
Lingual tonsils
Posterior wall nasopharynx
Phryngeal tonsils (adenoids)
-Surround Eustachian tube
-Smallest
Tubal Tonsils
Tonsils are not fully (1).
Epithelium folds inward to form (2).
1. encapsulated
2. crypts
(1) trap bacteria-->move into lymphoid tissue-->(2)
1. Crypts
2. destroyed
Other areas of lymph. follicles?
1. Peyer's Patches
2. Appendix
3. Walls of bronchi
Located in the wall of ileum?
Peyer's Patches
Located off cecum?
Appendix
What is MALT?
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
What is the function of MALT?
Protection of digestive and respiratory tracts.