Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/22

Click to flip

22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Lymph
Functions
production, maintenance, distribution of lymphocytes
Lymph
Vessels
Major - Superficial
Major - Deep
Major - Thoracic duct
Major - Right lymphatic duct
and Small Vessels
Lymph
Types
cytotoxic T cells
B Cells
Helper T cells
NK cells
suppressor T cells
Lymph
Production
B cell - prepared by wrapping stromal cell
Protein - interleukin-7
T cells mature in thymus
-checked for self competence
-checked for binding too loosely too tightly
- retain mitotic ability
Lymph Organs & Tissues
MALT
Tonsils
MALT - mucosa associated lymphoid tissue
* peyer's patches
Tonsils -
*palatine
*pharyngeal tonsil
* lingual tonsils
lymph organs & tissues
Lymph nodes
Trabeculae - collagenous fibers
Hilus - where nerve and blood cells enter
Efferent vessels
Afferent vessels
Subscapular sinus - dendritic cells initiate immune response
Outer cortex = B cells
Deep cortex = T cells
Medulla - Bcells, plasma cells
Lymph organs & tissues
Lymph nodes
Fnctions
remove pathogens
filter antigens
early warning system
lymph organs & tissues
thymus
two lobes
divided into lobules
each has a cortex, medulla
lymph organs & tissues
Spleen
encapsulated by elastic and collagenous fibers
Red Pulp (RBC's)
White pulp (lymph nodes)
Lymph - non-specific defenses
A)physical barrirs
B)phagocytes
1) microphages
a) Eosinophils
b) Neutrophils
2) macrophages - monocyte
a) engulf
b) attach & wait for help
c) toxic chemicals
Non-specific defenses
Immunological surveillance
reads antigens
NK cells - adhere, release porforins,
internal homeostasis interrupted
non-specific defenses
Interferons
alpha - from leukocytes
beta - from fibroblasts
gamma - from T and NK cells
non-specific defenses
Complement system
inflammation
attract and enhance phagocytes
destroy cell membranes
non- specific defenses
Fever
Inflammation
Fever - from pyogens
inflammation -
prevents entry of additional pathogens
prevents spread of pathogens from injury site
mobilizes local defenses
released cytokines stimulate fibroblasts
Specific defenses
Forms of Immunity
innate
acquired
active
passive - passing of antibodies
specific defenses
properties of immunity
specificity
versatility
memory
tolerance
specific defenses
cell mediated immunity
cells-
cytotoxic, Helper, Suppressor T cells.
Antigen presentation-
MHC proteins - class I proteins (self, non-self)
APC (antigen presenting cells)
*phagocytes
*non-phagocytes (langerhans, dendritic cells)
Helper T * marked cells
Cytotoxic and memory cells
-seek & destroy,
2+days to activate;
2nd exposure
memory into action
Suppressor cells
-act after initial immune response
specific defenses
Antibody mediated immunity
B cells launch attack on antigens by specific antibodies
sequence
- sensitization
- needs OK by helper T cell
- T cell secretes cytokins that stimulate B cell mitosis
- Some B cells differentiate into memory cells
- rest to plasma cells to secrete up to 100 million antibodies/hr
specific defenses
antibody structure
heavy chain (1 pair)
light chains (1 pair)
Variable segment
Tips of variable segments form antigen binding sites
Specific defenses
antibody types
IgG - Largest, most diverse (80%), can cross the placenta
IgE - work with (& attached to basophils) for antihistamine release
IgD - on surfaces of B cell it can bind antigens
IgM - attacks wrong blood, bacteria immune to IgG
IgA - Glandular secretions, stops pathogens outside
specific defenses
Primary & secondary response to antigen exposure
Primary response
Peaks 1-2 weeks
after initial exposure
Secondary response
Memory B cells respond, antibody concentration peaks in 5-7 days, more than 2x as strong
specific defense
Immunological competence
T-cells sent to thymus
tested for reliable recognition of self
and strength of bonding with self
substandard one toasted