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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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#1 Q

List the three characteristics of a SOCIAL GROUP
#1 A

Three characteristics:
1) Regular interaction that is oriented toward a common purpose
2) A set of norms
3) A structure of statuses and roles
p. 222
#2 Q

This is the term for a large-scale group that has a name, a structure of statuses and roles, official goals, and a set of rules (to promote the goals)
#2 A

FORMAL ORGANIZATION
p. 223
#3 Q

This is the type of FORMAL ORGANIZATION that compels (requires) individuals to participate in them (e.g., Total Institutions)
#3 A

COERCIVE ORGANIZATIONS
p. 223
#4 Q

This is true of PRIMARY GROUPS
#4 A

They are always small in size (membership)
p. 224
#5 Q

This is true about SECONDARY GROUPS
#5 A

They have grown in popularity and size as society has modernized
p. 224
#6 Q

This is the term for when a group collectively arrives at a decision that one or more of its individual members privately oppose but will not challenge
#6 A

GROUPTHINK
p. 226
#7 Q

This is the term for when a group arrives at a stronger position than its members individually favor
#7 A

GROUP POLARIZATION
p. 226
#8 Q

List three of the basic characteristics of FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS
#8 A

Three characteristics:
1) The presence of leader(s)
2) They have a specific purpose/goal
3) They are self-perpetuating (survive beyond the individual members/leaders)
p. 227
#9 Q

The types of organizations to which Robert Michel's (pronounced: MY kuls) "Iron Law of Oligarchy" applied
#9 A

All FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS
p. 228
#10 Q

The type(s) of leadership that a successful group must have
#10 A

Both types:
1) EXPRESSIVE
2) INSTRUMENTAL
p. 228
#11 Q

The one U.S. president that is considered to have been both an EXPRESSIVE and an INSTRUMENTAL leader
#11 A

Franklin D. Roosevelt ("FDR")
[Presidency: 1933 - 1945]
p. 229
#12 Q

This is the style of leadership that is preferred during emergencies and wartime
#12 A

AUTHORITARIAN Leadership
p. 230
#13 Q

This is the best way to describe Max Weber's opinions about BUREAUCRACY
#13 A

A necessary "evil":
a) Depersonalizing (unfavorable)
b) Essential to any healthy democracy in accomplishing vital functions
p. 233
para. 2
#14 Q

This is Max Weber's term for group decision-making based purely upon the accomplishment of organizational goals
#14 A

RATIONALIZATION
[Rational decision-making]
p. 231
#15 Q

According to Weber, this is the one characteristic that all BUREAUCRACIES possess that provides accountability
#15 A

HIERARCHICAL CHAIN OF COMMAND
[ "power pyramid" ]
p. 230
#16 Q

This is how Karl Marx viewed BUREAUCRACIES
#16 A

A system that helps the rich and powerful
p. 233
#17 Q

This is the term for when work expands to fill the time (and employees) available
#17 A

"PARKINSON'S LAW"
p. 235
#18 Q

This is true of the organizational structure of large corporations such as IBM and Apple Computer
#18 A

Formal organizational structures are vital to success in business
#19 Q

This is the one dysfunction of BUREAUCRACIES upon which both Marx and Weber agreed
#19 A

WORKER ALIENATION
p. 236
#20 Q

These are two innovations that have enabled Japanese work organizations to become competitive in the world market
#20 A

Two innovations:
1) QUALITY CONTROL CIRCLES
2) LIFETIME EMPLOYMENT (for select groups of exemplary employees)
pp. 240 - 241
#11 Q

The one U.S. president that is considered to have been both an EXPRESSIVE and an INSTRUMENTAL leader
#11 A

Franklin D. Roosevelt ("FDR")
[Presidency: 1933 - 1945]
#12 Q

This is the style of leadership that is preferred during emergencies and wartime
#12 A

AUTHORITARIAN Leadership
#13 Q

This is the best way to describe Max Weber's opinions about BUREAUCRACY
#13 A

A necessary "evil"
#14 Q

This is Max Weber's term for group decision-making based purely upon the accomplishment of organizational goals
#14 A

RATIONALIZATION
[Rational decision-making]
#15 Q

According to Weber, this is the one characteristic that all BUREAUCRACIES possess
#15 A

HIERARCHICAL CHAIN OF COMMAND
[ "pyramid of power" ]
#16 Q

This is how Karl Marx viewed BUREAUCRACIES
#16 A

A system that helps the rich and powerful more than societal needs
#17 Q

This is the term for when work expands to fill the time (and employees) available
#17 A

"PARKINSON'S LAW"
#18 Q

This is true of the organizational structure of large corporations such as IBM and Apple Computer
#18 A

Formal organizational structures are vital to success in business
#19 Q

This is the one dysfunction of BUREAUCRACY that both Marx and Weber agreed upon
#19 A

WORKER ALIENATION
#20 Q

These are two innovations that have enabled Japanese work organizations to become competitive in the world market
#20 A

Two innovations:
1) QUALITY CONTROL CIRCLES
2) LIFETIME EMPLOYMENT
#21 Q

This is the definition of a DYAD
#21 A

The smallest possible group
[ consists of 2 people ]
#22 Q

This is the definition of a TRIAD
#22 A

A group consisting of 3 people
#23 Q

This is the definition of INGROUP
#23 A

The group to which a person belongs
#24 Q

This is the definition of OUTGROUP
#24 A

The group(s) to which a person does NOT belong
[ the opposite of the INGROUP ]
#25 Q

This is the definition of IDEAL TYPE
#25 A

An abstract description into which actual groups/entities will fit (more or less)
#26 Q

This is the definition of ALIENATION (as used by Marx)
#26 A

The result of separating the worker from the produce (or product) of his/her labor
#27 Q

This is the definition of INFORMAL STRUCTURE
#27 A

The actions that employees take on a daily basis, in contrast to formal rules
#28 Q

This is the definition of NEGOTIATED ORDER
#28 A

Individuals, with their needs, objectives and experiences, ultimately make the organization
[ sometimes referred to as: "Corporate Culture" ]
#29 Q

This is the definition of GLOBALIZATION
#29 A

The transition to a worldwide economy that transcends (goes beyond) national boundaries
#30 Q

This is the definition of EXPRESSIVE LEADERSHIP
#30 A

An EXPRESSIVE LEADER:
1) Helps maintain the cohesiveness of the group
2) Cares about the emotional well-being of its members
[ a.k.a. "SOCIO-EMOTIONAL LEADER" ]
#31 Q

This is the definition of INSTRUMENTAL LEADERSHIP
#31 A

An INSTRUMENTAL LEADER:
1) Helps the group define its job
2) Helps the group determine how best to accomplish its job/goals
[ a.k.a. "TASK LEADER" ]
#32 Q

This is the definition of BUREAUCRACY
#32 A

The dominant type of FORMAL ORGANIZATION in modern society, consisting of:
1) Division of labor
2) Hierarchy
3) Formal rules and regulations
4) Impersonality and universalism
5) Managerial or administrative staff
6) Lifelong careers
#43 Q

This is the definition of an AGGREGATE
#43 A

[ Opposite of SOCIAL GROUP ] A group that has a common purpose, but who do not interact regularly, nor any division of roles and statuses
[ Example: people standing on the street corner waiting for the stoplight to change ]
#44 Q

List the three types of FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS, according to Etzioni
#44 A

Three types:
1) NORMATIVE
(purely voluntary membership - recreational clubs, political groups, etc.)
2) UTILITARIAN
(mostly voluntary, functional membership purpose - corporations, governments, labor unions, etc.)
3) COERCIVE
(involutary - prison, etc.)
#45 Q

List three examples of SECONDARY GROUPS
#45 A

Examples:
1) Businesses
2) Schools
3) Political organizations
4) Churches
#46 Q

This is one of the principle reasons that SECONDARY GROUPS are more common in modern societies than in PREINDUSTRIAL societies
#46 A

Unlike in PREINDUSTRIAL societies, modern social interaction requires that we come into contact with far more, and diverse, people in business, education, government, etc.
#47 Q

List three examples of PRIMARY GROUPS
#47 A

Examples:
1) Family
2) Roommates
3) Friends
4) Bowling team
5) Church gatherings/groups (in many cases)
#48 Q

This term applies to one of the first discovered effects of GROUP POLARIZATION
#48 A

"RISKY SHIFT"
[based upon the group perception that some "bold and different" action(s) should be taken]
#49 Q

This is the definition of OLIGARCHY
#49 A

Rule by a small group of leaders, with little of no effective input from the rest of the members of that group
#50 Q

List the three styles of leadership
#50 A

1) DEMOCRATIC
2) AUTHORITARIAN
3) LAISSEZ-FAIRE (pronounced: Lah zay FAIR)
#51 Q

This is the general definition of the LAISSEZ-FAIRE leadership style
#51 A

Leaving decision-making up to the group (usually by consensus), without providing any particular direction/focus
#52 Q

List the names/terms for at least five of the DYSFUNCTIONS of BUREAUCRACIES
#52 A

1) DECISION AVOIDANCE
2) TRAINED INCAPACITY
3) NORMALIZATION OF DEVIANCE
4) SELF-PERPETUATION & GOAL DISPLACEMENT
5) TENDENCY TO EXPAND
(a.k.a. "PARKINSON'S LAW")
6) RITUALISM
7) ALIENATION (of workers)
8) "the PETER PRINCIPLE" (people tend to get promoted until they reach their level of incompetence)