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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the author's main point?
Identify the conclusion and premises.
The main conclusion drawn in the author's argument is that...
Use the WHY test (find conclusion, ask why, will get premises), and then match your conclusion against the 5 answer choices.
The argument is structured to lead to which one of the following conclusions?
Be careful not to fall for the opposite. When down to two choices, look for extreme wording and relevance to eliminate one choice.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies? The argument above assumes which of the following? The writer's argument depends upon assuming which of the following?
Identify the conclusion, premises, and assumptions of the author. Look for the gap between 2 different ideas in the argument to find the assumption. The assumption will always strengthen the author's conclusion and is NECESSARY for the conclusion to follow from the information provided. When down to 2 choices, negate each statement to see if the argument falls apart. If it does, that's your answer.
Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the author's conclusion? Which of the following, if true, would most call into question the results achieved by the scientists?
Identify the conclusion, premises, and assumptions of the author. Read critically, looking for where the author made large leaps in logic. Look for a choice that has the most negative impact on that leap in logic. Assume all choices to be hypothetically true.
Which of the following statements, if true, would most support the author's conclusion? Which one of the following statements, if true, would strengthen the author's argument?
Identify the conclusion, premises, and assumptions of the author. Read critically, looking for where the author made large leaps in logic. Look for a choice that has the most positive impact on that gap. Assume all choices to be hypothetically true.
Which one of the following provides the best resolution to the apparent paradox described by the committee member? Which one of the following statements, if true, would explain the discrepancy found by the scientists?
Identify the apparent discrepancy or paradox. Look for a piece of information that, when added to the argument, allows both facts from the argument to be true. Assume all choices to be hypothetically true.
Which one of the following statements can be validly inferred from the information above? If the statements above are true, then which of the following must also be true? Which one of the following conclusions can be validly drawn from the passage above? Which one of the following conclusions is best supported by the passage above?
Read carefully, paying close attention to qualifying language. Cross off any choices that are not DIRECTLY supported by evidence from the passage. Look for relevance and extreme language to eliminate answer choices. Use the contrapositive if there are "if...then" statements contained in the passage and in the answer choice.
The argument proceeds by...
Leah reponds to Kevin by doing which of the following?
The method the activist uses to object to the developer's argument is to...
Dr. Jacobs does which of the following?
Read the argument carefully and then describe what is happening in your own words, focusing on the author's conclusion and premises. Take this description and rigorously apply it to the choices. Compare the actions described in the choices against those that actually occur in the argument. Cross out anything that did not appear in the argument.
Which of the following indicates a flaw in the author's reasoning?
A criticism of the argument would most likely emphasize that it...
The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the argument...
The argument above relies on which of the following questionable techniques?
Break down the argument into its parts; the flaw is usually related to an assumption. State in your own words what the problem with the argument is. Try to match the actions in the choices with those of the argument itself. Look for the choice that has the same problem you found. Eliminate answers that don't match; look for the answer that addresses the assumption.
Which of the following principles, if established, justifies the actions taken by Mia in the argument above?
Which of the following examples conforms most closely to the principle given in the argument above?
Be clear - are you being asked to find something that supports a decision, or that conforms to an idea? Look for the answer choice that either justifies the action or matches the principle in the argument.
Which one of the following is most similar in reasoning to the argument above?
The flawed pattern of reasoning exhibited by the argument above is most paralleled by that in which of the following?
Parallel-the-reasoning Q's will either contain flawed or valid reasoning, and the Q will tip you off. Diagram the arguement, then each answer choice. Compare. If the argument if flawed, be careful not to choose an answer that fixes if.
If the answer must be true...
Eliminate any that could be false.
If the answer must be false...
Eliminate any that could be true.
If the answer could be true...
Eliminate any that must be false.
If the answer could be false...
Eliminate any that must be true.
If the answers could all be true EXCEPT...
eliminate all that could be true.
Diagram the clues
Check your clues by articulating what each one means, then look for the clue and check it off.
Contrapositives
Replace "unless" with "if not" and start sentence there.
Flip and negate.
Replace "only if" with "if not", start sentence there and negate second half of sentence.
"OR" or "AND" conditionals
Must switch Or to And or And to Or when you flip and negate.