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14 Cards in this Set

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generalized transformation
ability of certain phages to transduce any gene in the bacterial chromosome. occurs in lysogenic phages where they pick up pieces of bacterial genome in faulty head stuffing.
specialized transduction
phage can only transduce certain genes of bacteria- this is because specialized transducers insert into bacterial chromosome at one position only-when exiting, faulty outlooping occurs and so pick up genes close by
conjugation
union of two bacterial cells during which chromosomal material is transferred from donor to recipient cell
transformation
directed modification of a genome by external application of DNA from a cell of diff genotype
F-
do not carry f factor/pili, can only receive DNA transferred from F+ or Hfr
F+
carry F factor, can transfer f factor to f- bacteria
Hfr
has F factor integrated into bcteria, can transfer F factor and chromosomal DNA to F- bacteria
9:3:4
recessive epistasis
12:3:1
dominant epistasis
13:3
suppression
9:6:1
modifier (in reg proteins)
9 normal, 6 either low expression or bad protein, 1 low expression of defective proteins
9:6
synthetic lethal- 2 mutations have a stronger effect when combined
9:7
complementation
15:1
duplicate genes