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79 Cards in this Set

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Inspiration is an _____ process that draws air into the lungs
Active
Inspiration is initiated by the __________ and supported by the external intercoastal muscles
Diaphragm
Expiration is a ______ process that lets air out of the lungs
Passive
Adults respiratory rate
12-20 breathes per minute
Child respiratory rate
15-30 breathes per minute
Infant normal respiratory rate
25-30 breathes per minutes
The right lung has _____ lungs and the left lung has ___
3
2
An excess of fluid in the lungs resulting from an inflammotory process. It is riggered by bacterial, viral or pathogenic organisms
Pneumonia
In pneumonia inflammation occurs in the _____________ spaces, the alveoli and the bronchiloes
Interstitial
When the bronchioloes become ________, the capillary leak and edema and exudate develop.
Obstructed
A _________ in gas exchange leads to hypoxemia
Decrease
Risk factors for ________-____ ___________:
Older Adults
No hx of pnemonia vaccination
No hx of flu vaccination in previous year
Chronic or co-existing conditions
Recent hx or exposure to viral or influenza infections
Hx of tobacco or alcohol use
Community Acquired Pneumonia
Risk factors for ____________ pneumonia:
Older adults
Chronic Lung disease
Gram-negative colonization of the oropharynx and stomach
Altered LOC
Aspiration
Endotracheal, tracheostomy, or NG tube
Poor nutritional status
Nosocomnial
low oxygen in blood
Hypoxemia
Lungs unable to move gas in and out of lungs mechanically, resulting in hypoxemia and hypercardiba
Ventilatory Failure
Collapse of affected alveoli and associated lobes of the lung
Atelectasis
Collection of fluid in plueral space
Pleural Effusion
Pain caused by friction between layers of pluera
Pleurisy
S&S of pnemonia:
Tachycardia
Tachypnea
SOB
Cough: ____________
pleural pain
Decreased breath sounds
General Malaise
Flushed cheeks, fever, chills, headache
Crackles, wheezing
yellow, blood streaked or rusty sputum
You would take a ______ specimen and do a ________ x-ray to dx pneumonia
Sputum
Chest
By using T,C, and DB and the ___________ _________ it improves inspiratory muscle performance and prevents or reverses atelectasis
Incentive Spirometer
A cbc is ordered to identify if the patient has an ______ WBC count
increased
You take _______ to assess hypoxemia and hypercarbia
ABG's
A patients BUN may be increased due to _____________
Dehydration
You want an outcome criteria of respiratory rate to retrn to 12-20 breathes within ___to ___days
5-10
Promote periods of _____
Rest
Communicable disease cause by myobacterium tuberculosis and is the most common bacterial infection worldwide.
Pulmonary TB
An infected individual is not infectious to others until manifesation of the disease ______
occur
Classification # of TB:
0 stands for
No TB expousure
1 stands for
TB exposure, with no evidence of infection
2 stands for
TB infection, no disease
3 stands for
TB clinically active (positive c x-ray and postive ppd)
4 stands for
TB not clinically active
5 stands for
TB suspect (diagnosis pending)
S&S of __________:
Fatigue, malaise
anorexia and weight loss
low grade fever in afternoon
Night sweats
Hemoptysis
Chronic Cough
Nausea
Chest tightness
localizied wheezing
Crackles
TB
Coughing up blood
Hemoptysis
A positive PPD indicates exposure to TB but not necessarly _________
infection
For a definite dx of TB, ____ sputum cultures and a +acid-fast bacillus test is needed within a 72 hour period
3
________ isolation precautions are done until sputum culture is negative
Airbourne
Give the patient 02 and always keep the patient from being _______
chilled
A person with TB wants nutrition of small _________ meals
frequent
Teach the importance of _________- ______ medications such as:
Isoniazid
Rifampin
Pyrazinamide
Ethambutol
Long term
Sputum cultures are needed every ___-____ weeks, and when culture is negative, the patient can return to former employment
2-4
The patient who is being discharged with TB must be able to properly explain self-_________ techiniques prior to discharge
medication
TB in children usually ages 3-15 are usually __________, and have a normal chest x-ray and can only be identified with a positive ppd
asymptomatic
Gastric washings may be necessary with ________ because they swallow there sputum instead of spitting it up
Children
Isolation is not required with children becuase children with TB are rarely _______________
Contagious
Most common lethal genetic disease in whites and is a chronic multisystem disorder affecting the exocrine glands
Cystic Fibrosis
Median age of survial age is ____
33
CF is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait which means both ______ must carry the gene for the child to be affected. Each pregnacy carries a 25% risk
parents
The mucus produced by the ________ glands is abnormally thick, causing obstruction of the small passageways of these organs
Exocrine
Patients with CF usually have ________ involvement, bowel and gallbladder abnormalities
Pancreatic
Sweat glands of children with CF secrete normal amounts of sweat , but the levels _______ and ________ in the sweat are 2-5x of the normal range
Sodium
Chloride
Males with CF are _____ because of obstruction of the derferent ducts and seminal vesciles
sterile
CF can lead to ______
COPD
Death in individuals with CF is usually always the result of ________ failure
Respiratory
CF kids have a ______ chest due to the increased chest diameter
Barrel
Mothers of babies with CF state that their babies taste _______; this is due tot eh abnormally high sodium and chloride concentrations in sweat
Salty
The doctors do a ____ test on someone who is suspected to have CF.
*If test is greater than 60 the test is positive....if between 40-60 you have to repeat the test
Sweat Test
Children with CF are taken care of at ________ and get VS done every 2-4hrs with T,C, and DB exercises.
Home
Chest ____ is a must on kids with CF
PT
Azithromycin and Tobramycin are _________ that are used to treat CF
Antibotics
YOU MUST DRINK ___________ enyzymes
Pancreatic
Steriods are only prescribed for a length of time no greater than ___ days
7
Hematogenous Metatasis
Blood Borne
TNM stands for:
Tumor size, Lymph node involvement, and Metastasis
Small cell lung cancer is _____ growing and usually meastatic at time of diagnosis
Rapid
Surgical Resections are not______ for small cell lung cancer, and treatment is based of a combination of chemotherapy
Not
In on-small cell lung cancer, surgical resections are helpful in stage __ and ___
1 and 2
Combination chemotherapy and targeted therapy are helpful for non-small cell lung cancer. If cancer is confined to chest than __________ therapy is used for cure
Radiation
Epidermoid carcinoma is a slower growing, less invasive cancer which is found in the bronchi and _________ lung tissue
Peripheral
Adenocarcinomas is the most common lung cancer in ________ abd metastasis occurs early
Women
Adenocarcinomas are found in the perphiereal lung _______
tissue
Large cell lung cancer is _____ growing and is found in the peripheral lung tissue
Slow
Cushings Syndrome is associated with ACTH horomone which is...
Adrenocorticotropic Horomone
SIADH, weight gain, edema, and dilution of electryolites is associated with what horomone?
Antidiuretic Hormone ADH
Gynecomastia is associated with what hormone?
Follicle-Stimulating hormone
Hypercalcemia is associated with what hormone?
Parathyroid Hormone
Hypoglycemia is associated with what hormone?
Ectopic Insulin