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230 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what parts can the lower limb be divided into?
gluteal
thigh
leg
foot
knee
ankle
what is the lower limb designed to do?
bear weight
move the body
in which direction does the knee flex?
posteriorly
what does the patella articulate with?
it's a free-floating bone = sesamoid
articulates with anterior surface of femur at knee
what does the fibula do mostly?
is site for muscle attachment
what's the name of the deep fascia in the thigh?
fascia lata
where is the iliotibial tract, what does it look like, what does it do?
lateral part of thigh
fibers are oriented vertically
part of insertion of muscles found in hip onto lateral aspect of knee and leg
what does the fascia lata do?
pumps venous blood out of lower limb
prevents muscles from bulging out, compresses veins instead
what's the most important superficial vein in the thigh?
great saphenous veing
where's the small saphenous vein?
calf
where does the great saphenous vein go?
takes blood from medial foot, leg, thigh
returns blood to deep veins via saphenous opening = opening in fascia lata in proximal thigh
what does the great saphenous vein do?
can be used for grafting
is very big, so can be used for iv
what are some superficial cutaneous nerves in the thigh
branches of large nerves:
femoral nerve - anterior femoral cutaneous nerve
obturator nerve
sciatic nerve
lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh = lateral femoral cutaneous nerve
posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (S1-S3) = largest cutaneous nerve in body
what are the rules of the anterior compartment of the thigh?
actions, innervation, blood supply
action: extend leg, flex thigh
innervation: femoral nerve
blood supply: femoral artery
rules of medial compartment of thigh
actions, innervation, blood supply
action: adduct thigh
innervation: obturator nerve
blood supply: obturator artery
what are the rules of the posterior compartment of the thigh?
actions, innervation, blood supply
action: flex leg, extend thigh
innervation: sciatic nerve
blood supply: perforating branches of deep femoral artery
what are the muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh?
1. quadriceps femoris
2. sartorius
3. iliopsoas
4. pectineus
5. tensor fascia lata
quadriceps femoris
insertion
names of heads
origins
what joints are crossed by what
what are actions and origins of each head
is largest muscle in body
insertion: tibial tuberosity via patella and patellar ligament
rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius
origin of rectus femoris: anterior inferior iliac spine, ilium (superior to acetabulum)
rectus femoris crosses two joints; hip and knee
acctions of rectus femoris: flex hip, extend knee
origin of other three heads: femur
action of other three heads: extend knee
origin
insertion
actions of sartorius muscle
origin: anterior superior iliac spine
insertion: medial part of proximal tibia
action: flexes, abducts, laterally rotates hip
flexes knee
insertion
action
innervation
components of iliopsoas muscle
insertion: lesser trochanter of femur
action: flexors of hip
innervation: iliacus from femoral n.
psoas major from lumbar plexus
iliopsoas made from iliacus and psoas major muscle fibers combining
pectineus
origin
insertion
action
innervation
which compartment is it in?
origin: superior pubic ramus
insertion: femur, distal to lesser trochanter
action: flexes, adducts thigh
innervation: femoral nerve, also obturator n.
can be either in anterior ormedial compartments
tensor fasciae latae
where is it? which compartments is it in?
origin:
insertion:
actions:
innveration:
location: border of anterior compartment and gluteal region
lateral part of thigh near iliac crest
origin: iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine
insertion: iliotibial tract on lateral side of proximal tibia
actions: steadies trunk over thigh when standing
flex, abduct thigh at hip
keeps knee extended
innervation: superior gluteal nerve
exceptions to anterior compartment:
sartorius - flexes knee
psoas major not innervated by femoral n.
pectineus and tensor fasciae latae share features of two compartments
where do most muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh go, what do they usually do?
how does obturator nerve get into lower limb
what does obturate mean
cross hip joint - only 1 muscle continues to cross knee
adduct thigh at hip
also called adductor compartment
obturator foramen is where obturator nerve passes through
obturate means to close over or to obliterate
obturator canal is small gap open to vessels and nerves through obturator foramen
what are the muscles in the medial compartment of the thigh?
adductors - there are three
adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus
gracilis
obturator externus
adductors of medial compartment
origin:
insertion:
what's the hamstring of the adductor magnus?
innervation
origin: pubis
insertion: linea aspera
hamstring part of adductor magnus:
origin: ischial tuberosity
insertion: adductor tubercle of femur
innervation: obturator nerve except for hamstring part of adductor magnus which is innervated by tibial part of sciatic nerve - same as hamstrings
action of hamstring part of adductor magnus: extends thigh
gracilis
origin:
insertion:
actions:
origin: pubis
insertion: medial part of tibia
action: adductor of thigh at hip
flexes leg at knee
obturator externus
location:
insertion:
actions
location: external surface of membrane covering obturator foramen
insertion: femur in gluteal region
action: rotate thigh laterally
what's a groin pull referring to?
injury to proximal attachment of thigh muscles in anterior and/or medial compartment
what are borders of femoral triangle
what's in the femoral triangle
borders:
superior - inguinal ligament
laterally - sartorius
medially - adductor longus
floor - iliopsoas, pectineus

contents from lateral to medial
NAVEL
N - femoral nerve
A - femoral artery
V - femoral vein
E - femoral canal - weak spot in abdominal wall site of femoral hernia
Empty space
L - lymphatics
what happens to the femoral nerve in the lower limb?
anterior compartment innervator
L2-L4
iliacus muscle in abdomen
sartorius
quadriceps femoris
cutaneous branches supplying skin of anterior thigh
saphenous nerve is exampe of major cutaneous branches - becomes cutaneous nerve on medial part of leg, ankle, foot
what are you testing in patellar reflex test?
femoral nerve
what's the path of the obturator nerve in the lower limb?
from L2-L4
adductors
small patch of skin on medial thigh
peritoneum in pelvis
what's the principal blood supply to lower limb?
femoral artery
what's the path of the femoral artery in the lower limb
branches at femoral triangle to form deep artery of thigh - this goes to posterior compartment of thigh via branches

deep to sartorius in space called subsartorial canal, adductor canal, Hunter's canal, goes along to knee

on posterior or flexor side of knee - popliteal artery
what's the path of the obturator artery in the lower limb
through obturator canal into lower limb
supplies muscles of medial compartment
what makes up the gluteal region?
gluteal muscles, blood supply, innervation
gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, superior gluteal nerve
short lateral rotators of thigh - superior and inferior gemellus muscles
quadratus femoris
sciatic nerve - tibial nerve = L4-S3
common fibular nerve L4-S2
where is the gluteus minimus muscle
what innervates it
actions
deep to gluteus medius
innervation: superior gluteal nerve - L4-S1
actions: assists medius in stabilizing pelvis
abduction of thigh
medial or internal rotator of thigh
what are parts of sciatic nerve
what spinal levels do they come from
enters gluteal region from where?
path
innervates what
where does it split
tibial nerve - L4-S3
common fibular nerve - also called peroneal nerve = L4-S2
these two nerves wrapped in common connective tissue sheath = sciatic n.
path: enters gluteal region via greater sciatic foramen
passes inferiorly and deep to gluteus maximus
not supply muscles of gluteal region, innervates muscles of posterior thigh, leg, foot
splits in thigh
sometimes split in gluteal region
if this happens, common fibular nerve may pass through or superior to piriformis muscle
contents of posterior compartment of thigh
hamstring muscles
tibial part of sciatic nerve
blood supply - perforating branches of ddeep artery of thigh, branch of femoral artery
what are the short lateral rotators of the thigh?
piriformis
obturator internus
superior and inferior gemellus muscles
quadratus femoris
where do the superior and inferior gemellus muscles originate and insert?
origin: lesser sciatic foramen
insertions: tendon of obturator internus
where's the quadratus femoris
spans hip
origin: ischial tuberosity
insertion: intertrochanteric crest of femur
what is in the posterior compartment of the thigh?
hamstring muscles
what do the hamstring muscles do?
extend thigh, flex leg
what innervates the hamstring muscles?
tibial part of sciatic nerve
what's the blood supply to the hamstring muscles?
perforating branches of deep artery of thigh, branch of femoral artery
what are the hamstring muscles, where are they?
what do they look like?
1. semitendinosus
half muscle belly and half tendon
2. semimembranosus
broad sheet-like tendon
3. long head of biceps femoris
biceps femoris is 2-headed muscle
all above are located in posterior compartment of thigh
what are the origins and insertions of hamstring muscles
origin: ischial tuberosity
insertion: proximal part of leg
semitendinosus and semimembranosus medially and biceps femoris laterally onto head of fibula
what do the hamstring muscles do?
extend hip joint
flex knee
muscles inserting on tibia medially rotate tibia
biceps femoris laterally rotates tibia with foot off floor
origin, insertion, action, innervation f short head of biceps femoris
origin: femur shaft
insertion: with long head onto fibula head
action: just knee
innervation: common fibular nerve or common fibular part of sciatic nerve, depending on where split takes place
why is the "hamstring part" of adductor magnus not a good name?
it extends thigh
innervation: tibial part of sciatic nerve
doesn't cross knee
what is the popliteal fossa? what does it look like
depression behind knee
roughly diamond-shaped
what are the boundaries of the popliteal fossa
superolaterally - biceps femoris
superomedially - semimembranosus and semitendinosus
inferolaterally and inferomedially - heads of gastrocnemius
what's in the popliteal fossa?
fat, lymphatics, small saphenous vein, popliteal artery (continuation of femoral artery), popliteal vein, two major nerves - tibial and common fibular nerves
where is the popliteus muscle
origin, insertion, action, innervation of popliteus muscle
deep in popliteal fossa
origin: lateral condyle of femur
insertion: proximal tibia
action: weak flexor of knee
helps unlock knee medially by rotating tibia on femur
innervation: tibial nerve
what's the path of the popliteal artery and its branches?
1. in leg, popliteal artery divides into anterior tibial artery and posterior tibial artery
2. anterior goes to anterior compartment of leg
posterior goes to posterior compartment of leg
3. branch of posterior - fibular or peroneal artery
this branches to lateral compartment
what's the path of the tibial nerve
vertically through popliteal fossa
innervates muscles around posterior part of knee =
popliteus, heads of gastrocnemius
passes to posterior compartment of leg
path of common fibular nerve
1. medial margin of biceps femoris toward neck of fibula
2. wraps around fibula beneath skin - can be cut, crushed
3. near neck of fibula, divides into superficial fibular nerve and deep fibular nerve
what does the superficial fibular nerve innervate and what nerve does it come from?
innervates lateral compartment of leg and comes from common fibular nerve
what does the deep fibular nerve innervate?
anterior compartment of leg
where does the sural nerve come from
tibial and common fibular nerve in popliteal fossa
what does the sural nerve do/
supplies skin on posterior and lateral part of leg, lateral side of foot
where does the saphenous nerve come from?
is terminal cutaneous branch of femoral nerve
what does the saphenous nerve do?
supplies skin on anterior and medial parts of knee, leg and medial side of foot
fibular can be referred to by another word - what is that word?
peroneal
what are the joints in teh lower limb
1. hip
2. knee
3. ankle
4. metatarsophalangeal
5. interphalangeal
6,7. proximal and distal tibiofibular
8. joints tween tarsal bones - where inversion, eversion take place
what innervates the gluteus maximus?
inferior gluteal nerve?
what kinds of actions happen at hip
flexion, extension
abduction, adduction
rotation
circumduction
what are ligmaments in hip joint?
1. iliofemoral ligament
2. ischiofemoral ligament
3. pubofemoral ligament
where is the iliofemoral ligament
what does it do?
anterior part of joint
prevents overextension
where is the ischiofemoral ligament, and what does it do?
posterior (to what?!) part of joint
limits extension of hip as well
where is the pubofemoral ligament, what does it do?
inferior part of hip joint
prevents hyperabduction
what's another ligament that i forgot to include in the hip joint?
ligament of the head of the femur
what is the path of the ligament of the head of the femur
from head of femur to acetabulum in joint
what does ligament of head of femur do?
in kids, protects small blood vessel that nourishes head during development
what's teh blood supply to the head of the femur
branches of femoral artery
branches reach femur neck distlly, travel proximally along bone
what actions are possible at the knee
some rotation
flexion, extension
what articulations makes up the knee joint
1. condyles of femur and tibia
2. patella and femur anterior to joint
what are the ligaments that reinforce the knee?
collateral ligmanets - tibial or medial collateral ligament
fibular or lateral collateral ligament
what do the collateral ligaments do
reinforce joint laterally and medially
what's the path of the anterior cruciate ligament
from anterior part of intercondylar region of tibia
posteriorly to femur
what does the anterior cruciate ligament do?
prevents femur from slipping posteriorly relative to tibia when knee flexed
prevents hyperextension of knee
where is teh posterior cruciate ligament
from posterior part of intercondylar region of tibia
goes anteriorly to femur
what does the posterior cruciate ligament do
stabilizes femur when knee flexed, prevents anterior displacement of femur
when weight-bearing on flexed knee, like when walking downstairs, posterior cruciate stabilizes femur
what are the medial meniscus and lateral meniscus made of?
cartilage
where are the menisci?
on articular surfaces of condyles of tibia, are anchored to tibia
medial meniscus attached also to tibial collateral ligament
what's a common injury at the knee?
tibial collateral ligament and medial meniscus often injured together
what's a severe knee injury?
anterior cruciate ligament tear
where are major vessels and nerves usually found?
on flexor side of joints
what are the compartments of the leg and what do they generally do?
anterior: inverts, weak eversion and dorsiflexion of foot
lateral: everts foot
posterior: inverts and plantar flexes foot
where is the anterior compartment of the leg?
lateral to tibia
what does the anterior compartment of leg do?
dorsiflex ankle,
invert foot
extend toes
what's the innervation of the anterior compartment of the leg?
deep fibular nerve
what's the blood supply to the anterior compartment of the leg?
anterior tibial artery
what's an important clinical correlate for the anterior compartment of the leg?
shin splints = inflammation of anterior compartment muscles
what's something important to remember about the muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg?
fibularis tertius is not a muscle itself - it is just the muscle fibers in extensor digitorum longus attached to lateral side of foot instead of to toe
name muscles of anterior compartment of leg
tibialis anterior
extensor hallucis longus
extensor digitorum longus
fibularis tertius
what's the main action of the tibialis anterior?
dorsiflexes ankle
inverts foot
what's the main action of the extensor hallucis longus
extends big toe,
dorsiflexes ankle
what's the main action of the extensor digitorum longus
extends toes 2-5
dorsiflexes ankle
what's the action of the fibularis tertius muscle fibers?
dorsiflexes ankle
everts foot
what are the muscles in the lateral compartment of the leg?
1. fibularis longus
2. fibularis brevis
what's origin of muscles of lateral compartment of leg
fibula
what's the innervation and actions of the muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg?
innervation: superficial fibular nerve
action: evert foot
what's the blood supply to the lateral compartment of the leg?
perforating branches of anterior tibial artery and fibular artery from posterior compartment
what's the insertion of fibularis brevis?
base of 5th metatarsal
tendon usually passes posterior to transverse axis of ankle joint
actions of fibularis brevis
everts foot and weak plantar flexor of foot
why does the base of the 5th metatarsal get fractured in severe ankle sprain?
because fibularis brevis inserts there and when you have excessive inversion of foot, can get break
what's the insertion of the fibularis longus?
tendon of fibularis longus wraps around sole of foot, inserts onto base of 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform
what's a function of the tendon of the fibularis longus
support the transverse arch of foot
what causes foot drop?
injury to common fibular nerve
paralyzes muscles in anterior and lateral compartments
leads to loss of dorsiflexion of ankle
what are the muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg?
superficial
1. gastrocnemius
2. soleus
3. plantaris

deep
1. popliteus
2. tibialis posterior
3. flexor hallucis longus
4. flexor digitorum longus
what's teh innervation to the muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg?
tibial nerve
what does the gastrocnemius do?
plantar flexes ankle, flexes knee
what does the soleus do?
plantar flexes ankle
steadies leg on foot while standing
what does the plantaris do?
plantar flexes ankle, flexes knee
what's the insertion points of the superficial part of the posterior compartment of the leg?
calcaneous
what's the triceps surae?
apparently the combination of the gastrocnemius and soleus
what does the popliteus do?
unlocks knee at onset of flexion
what does the tibialis posterior do?
plantar flexes ankle, inverts foot
what does the flexor hallucis longus do?
flexes big toe, plantar flexes ankle
what does the flexor digitorum longus do?
flexes toes 2-5
plantar flexes ankle
which muscles are in the superficial and deep groups of the posterior compartment of the leg?
superficial:
gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris
deep:
popliteus, tibialis posterior
flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus
what does tom, dick and harry mean? what are they? where do they come from? what's their significance?
relationships of tendons from deep part of posterior compartment
posterior and inferior to medial malleolus
T = tibialis posterior
D = digitorum longus
H = hallucis longus
where does the tibial nerve and posterior tibial artery travel through to get to foot?
tween dick and harry
what are the muscles on the dorsum of the foot?
1. extensor digitorum brevis
2. extensor hallucis brevis
what tendons of which muscles are also on the dorsum of the foot?
extensor digitorum longus
extensor hallucis longus
what innervates the muscles of the dorsum of the foot?
deep fibular nerve
what artery supplies the dorsum of the foot? where is this artery?
dorsalis pedis from anterior tibial artery

tween tendons of extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus
what does the talus bone articulate with?
superiorly - tibia
laterally - fibular
inferiorly - calcaneous
anteriorly - navicular
what are the articulations of the calcaneous bone?
superiorly - talus
anteriorly - cuboid
what are the names of some of the joints in the foot?
1. subtalar joint
2. talonavicular joint - also talocalcaneounavicular joint
3. calcaneocuboid joint
what two joints together make the transverse tarsal joint
1. talonavicular joint
2. calcaneoucuboid joint
where does inversion and eversion of the foot take place?
subtalar and transverse tarsal joints
what are the joints called between the metatarsal bones and phalanges?
metatarsophalangeal joints (MP)
what actions take place at MP joints in foot?
flexion, extension
abduction, adduction - usually minimal since muscles in foot not strong due to shoes
what actions take place at interphalangeal joints?
flexion, extension
how are the muscles of the sole of the foot organized?
4 layers; 3 compartments
what are the compartments of muscles in the sole of the foot?
one that acts on big toe
other that acts on little toe
final group are centrally located muscles assisting long flexors
what are the four muscles of the sole of the foot that i need to know?
1. abductor hallucis
2. flexor digitorum brevis
3. abductor digiti minimi
4. quadratus plantae
what layers do the musles of the sole of the foot that i need to know take up?
need to know muscles of entire first layer:
abductor hallucis
flexor digitorum brevis
abductor digiti minimi
PLUS one muscle of second layer
quadratus plantae
what's the innervation to the first layer muscles of sole of foot and quadratus plantae of 2nd layer?
abductor hallucis and flexor digitorum brevis are all innervated by medial plantar nerve

abductor digiti minimi and quadratus plantae are both innervated by lateral plantar nerve
what does the abducotr hallucis do?
abducts and flexes big toe
what does the flexor digitorum brevis do?
flexes toes 2-5
what does the abductor digiti minimi do?
abducts little toe
what does the quadratus plantae do?
adjusts pull of FDL
what kind of joint is the ankle joint?
hinge
what actions are allowed at the ankle joint?
dorsiflexion, plantarflexion
what makes up the ankle joint?
talus with fibula and tibia
what are the ligaments associated with the ankle medially and laterally?
medial - deltoid ligament - very strong
3 lateral collateral ligaments
1. posterior talofibular ligament
2. anterior talofibular ligament
3. calcaneofibular ligament - inferior
which ligaments are prone to injury from excessive inversion
calcaneofibular and anterior talofibular
what usually results in a fracture at the ankle?
excessive eversion
what causes a trendelenburg sign?
loss of superior gluteal nerve L4-S1
loss of gluteus medius and gluteus minimus
hip loses stability during swing
if asked to stand on one foot and hip falls to lifted side patient has positive trendelenburg sign
what happens when femoral nerve cut at origin
hip flexion wek
leg extension almost completely lost
strength of knee extension not good
sensation over anterior thigh and medial malleolus sucks
how do you test for femoral nerve problems?
knee jerk reflex
what branch of femoral nerve supplies skin over medial malleolus?
look it up
what happens when obturator nerve damaged?
L2-L4
traumatized by head of baby during difficult birth
thigh adduction is weak
small patch of skin on medial part of thigh almost numb or tingling
sensation to some of peritoneum in pelvis
what's sciatica?
is symptom - pain and weakness from compression of sciatic nerve or its roots
common cause is bulging intervertebral disc
also caused by atrophy or tightening of piriformis muscle, even tumor
how to test for sciatica?
straight leg test
stretches sciatic nerve, illicits pain
what's reflex test for sciatic nerve?
achille's jerk
tests sciatic and tibial nerve - especially S1
what happens if sciatic nerve cut?
severe muscle loss - leg remains extended and foot immobilized
how is injury usually caused to common fibular nerve?
L4-S2
nerve is superficial and near bone at neck of fibula
can be cut or crushed by car bumper, poorly fitted ski boots or prolonged period in stirrups of obstetric delivery table
what's result of injury to common fibular nerve?
foot drop
dorsiflexors are innervated by common fibular nerve, so they can't work
people have high stepping gait so toes can clear floor
foot strikes floor with thud
what does the common fibular nerve innervate?
dorsiflexors of foot
dorsum of foot - superficial fibular nerve
cleft tween big toe and second toe - deep fibular nerve
how do you test the common fibular nerve?
test the ability to extend the big toe
what happens with an injury to the tibial nerve?
difficult to plantar flex foot
hard to flex or spread toes
heel strikes floor when walking - result is foot slap
can't push off ground, walking is difficult
what's an abnormal cutaneous result from injury to the tibial nerve?
cutaneous sensation over lateral side of sole of foot
what's the path and the muscles innervated by the femoral nerve - trace it through the lower limb
abdomen: iliacus

thigh: sartorius
pectineus
quadriceps femoris - patellar ligament
BRANCH: anterior femoral cutaneous nerve

leg:
BRANCHES:
saphenous nerve
skin to medial side

foot: skin to medial malleolus
trace path of obturator nerve in lower limb - what muscles does it innervate
nothing until thigh:
pectineus?
gracilis
adductor magnus (adductor part)
adductor longus
adducctor brevis
trace path of tibial nerve in lower limb
what muscles does it innervate
what branches does it have?
thigh:
semitendinosus
biceps femoris long head
semimembranosus
adductor magnus - hamstring part

leg:
gastrocnemius
soleus
plantaris
popliteus
tibialis posterior
flexor digitorum longus
flexor hallucis longus
skin of ankle

foot
medial plantar nerve - plantar muscles, skin of sole
lateral plantar nerve - plantar muscles, skin of sole
trace path of common fibular nerve in lower limb
what muscles does it innervate
what branches does it have?
thigh: biceps femoris - short head

leg:
BRANCH:
1. sural nerve - also branches in leg to skin to lateral side
in foot to skin of lateral and little toe

2. superficial fibular nerve - branches to fibularis longus and
fibularis brevis, supplies
skin of dorsum of foot

3. deep fibular nerve
tibialis anterior
extensor hallucis longus
extensor digitorum longus
fibularis tertius
skin of cleft tween 1st and 2nd toe
where does sural nerve come from, where does it go and what does it do?
comes off of common fibular nerve at knee
innervates skin to lateral side of leg
and skin of lateral side of foot and
little toe
where does deep fibular nerve come from, where does it go and what does it do?
comes from common fibular nerve at knee
innervates 4 muscles of anterior compartment
tibialis anterior
extensor hallucis longus
extensor digitorum longus
fibularis tertius

skin of cleft tween 1st and 2nd toe
where does superficial fibular nerve come from, where does it go and what does it do?
comes from common fibular nerve at knee
innervates fibularis longus and fibularis brevis

skin of dorsum of foot
what is cranial nerve I?
olfactory nerve
what's the function of the olfactory nerve?
conveys sense of smell directly to brain ABOVE brain stem
perception, discrimination, reflexes
what's cranial nerve II?
optic nerve
what are the structures around the optic nerve?
optic chiasm
optic tract
thalamus
where's the thalamus?
is end of CN II or optic nerve
above level of brainstem for perception, discrimination and reflexes
what's the optic tract compared to the optic nerve?
tract is after chiasm
nerve is before chiasm
where's the optic chiasm?
connection tween optic nerves
what's the function of the optic nerve?
carries visual info to thalamus, part of brain
what's the name of CN III?
oculomotor nerve
what muscles are innervated by the oculomotor nerve?
Levator palpebrae superioris
medial recctus
superior rectus
inferior oblique
inferior rectus
sphincter pupillae
ciliary muscle
what does the levator palpebrae do?
it elevates the upper eyelid
what do the medial rectus, superior rectus, inferior oblique, inferior rectus do?
they adduct, elevate and depress eyeball
what does the sphincter pupillae do?
constricts pupil
what does the ciliary muscle do?
alters lens shape for accomodation
what nerve innervates the superior oblique?
trochlear nerve, CN IV
what does the lateral rectus do?
abducts eyeball
what nerve innervates the lateral rectus?
CN VI
what's the name of CN VI?
abducent nerve
what does the ciliary muscle do?
increases convexity of lens
where does the LPS insert into?
cartilage of upper lid
what muscles are used when the eyes cross?
medial recti
what's another name for eye crossing?
bilateral adduction
what happens to the pupils in bilateral adduction?
pupil becomes smaller
what is accomodation?
changes in the eye to focus on near objects
1. pupillary constriction
2. convergence of eyes to contraction of medial recti
3. increase in convexity of lens
which of following is not a function of CN III?
accomodation
adduction of eye
abducction of eye
pupillary constriction
opening the eye
abduction
what muscles contract when eyes move right?
Left - medial rectus
right - lateral rectus
what muscles contract when the eyes move left?
left - lateral rectus
right - medial rectus
what muscles elevate the eyes?
superior rectus
inferior oblique
what muscles depress the eyes?
inferior rectus
superior oblique
what muscles contract when eyes elevate and look right?
left - inferior oblique
right - superior rectus
what muscles contract when eyes are depressed and move to right?
left - superior oblique
right - inferior rectus
can recti or obliques adduct the eyes?
no
what muscles are contracting when the eyes elevate and look left?
left - superior rectus
right - inferior oblique
what muscles depress and turn eyes left?
left - inferior rectus
right - superior oblique
what does A BREAD O'Bananas mean?
rectus muscles ABduct
oblique muscles ADduct
which pair of eye muscles work together to move eyees down and to right:
right IR, left IO
right IO, left IR
right SO, left IR
right IR, left SO
right IO, left SO
right IR and left SO
what's the name of CN V?
trigeminal nerve
what are the names of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, CN V?
V1 = ophthalmic
V2 = maxillary
V3 - mandibular
what kind of nerves are in V1 and V2?
sensory only
what kind of nerves are in V3?
sensory and motor
does the trigeminal nerve have preganglionic parasympathetic fibers?
no
which ganglia hitch rides on trigeminal nerve?
ciliary ganglion - V1
pterygopalatine ganglion - V2
submandibular ganglion - V3
otic ganglion - V3
what parasympathetic ganglion attaches to mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve?
otic
what parasympathetic ganglia attach to maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve?
pterygopalatine
submandibular
what parasympathetic ganglion attaches to ophthalmic branch of trigeminal nerve?
ciliary ganglion
what's the path of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve?
through superior orbital fissure
out of orbit to
face and scalp
what's the path of the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve?
through foramen rotundum
to pteygopalatine fossa
through infraorbital foramen to
face and scalp
what's the path of the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve?
through foramen ovale
to infratemporal fossa
to mandible
through mental foramen
to face and scalp
what happens to the terminal branches of the trigeminal nerve in the face?
become cutaneous nerves both head and face
what are the major functions of the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve?
4 muscles of mastication
what are the 4 muscles of mastication?
1. masseter
2. lateral pterygoid
3. medial pterygoid
4. temporalis
what's the mylohyoid?
anterior belly of digastric, tensor tympani and tensor palati
what's the sensory distribution of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve?
top of nose
over forehead
top, medial part of scalp
where's the sensory distribution of the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve?
cheek, frontal part of zygomatic bone
where's the sensory distribution of the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve?
jaw, chin, temporal area