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184 Cards in this Set

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What was the date that Louisiana became a state?
April 30, 1812
Louisiana was the _____ state to join the union.
18th
The _____ was labeled as aristocratic and conservative.
Constitution of 1812
What were the four main differences in the Constitution of 1812?
1. Preamble: “We the representatives of the people…”
2. Governor was not directly elected by the people, legislature chose the governor
3. To be in office, men had to own property, be in office, and pay a certain amount of taxes
4. Governor appointed all officials and judges, except for the legislature
None
The first state election was the Election of _____.
1812
Election of 1812 had three candidates for governor, they were:
1. William C. C. Claiborne
2. Gabrielle Villeré
3. Jean Noel Destrehan
None
_____ had been appointed by Jefferson to run Louisiana while it was a territory.
William C. C. Claiborne
_____ Was the son of Jacques who was shot by Spanish while trying to escape, called a martyr, Creole.
Gabrielle Villeré
_____ had a huge plantation north of New Orleans, largest plantation home in the Mississippi Valley, brother-in-law of Etienne de Bore, Creole.
Jean Noel Destrehan
_____ was elected by more votes than _____ and _____ put together.
Claiborne
Villeré
Destrehan
None
_____ worked hard to get the Creole’s support in the Election of 1812 and they rewarded him for it.
Claiborne
_____ was the first elected governor, as well as the territory governor of Orleans.
William C. C. Claiborne
As soon as Claiborne took office in 1812, he was faced with two major problems:
1. The war of 1812 in June between US and Britain
2. Baratarians were group of Creole pirates led by the famous Jean Lafitte
None
Creole pirates were led by _____.
Jean Lafitte
The War of 1812
British navy set up a blockade at New Orleans that cut off trade with Europe.
Louisiana economy was seriously damaged.
Louisiana was not prepared for a war and there weren’t very many soldiers.
French Creoles didn’t have too much enthusiasm for the war and hadn’t set any loyalties.
None
Baratarians
raided the ships along the gulf coast as far down as the Caribbean.
Main objective were the Spanish ships, particularly ones with slaves.
Got a lot of gold and silver.
Didn’t bother the American ships too much. Disrupting trade along the gulf.
Called his warehouse The Temple.
Located in the Baratarians Bay.
Hurt the businessmen of New Orleans.
Many creoles admired him, didn’t care the goods were stolen, liked the lower price.
He was protected by the people.
None
Lafitte called his warehouse _____.
The Temple
Where did the Baratarians get their name?
The Baratarians Bay where they were located.
_____ of Tennessee had replaced _____ as the military commander of the southwest.
General Andrew Jackson
General James Wilkinson
None
_____ was one of the top British commanders and brother-in-law of Wellington.
General Sir Edward Pakenham
The only troop on guard at Chalmette, where the British were hiding at, was a small company (about 20 people) led by _____.
Major Gabrielle Villeré
What Indians came to help the US in the Battle of New Orleans?
The Chawktaw Indians
Why did Jackson let Lafitte and his pirates fight in the Battle of New Orleans?
Lafitte told Jackson that Pakenham had offered him money to fight with the British and made a deal to have their crimes pardoned if they fought with the US.
Jackson wanted them because they were excellent cannon shots.
None
Why did the British want New Orleans so badly?
So they could use New Orleans to get a better peace treaty
Who was one of the black soldiers that shot Pakenham in the heart during the Battle of New Orleans?
Captain Savary
What were the three main results of the Battle of New Orleans?
1. Everyone in Louisiana was proud to be an American and it unified Louisiana.
2. Helped to get better peace terms for the US.
3. Made Andrew Jackson president of the US.
None
Louisiana is the _____ state to join the Union.
18th
There were not party politics for the first twenty years Louisiana was a state, because _____.
Louisiana was a one party state.
Nearly everyone in Louisiana was in the _____ that was led by _____.
Democratic/Republican Party, Jefferson
_____ was responsible for the Louisiana Purchase and risked his job to buy it.
Jefferson
The first real political division in Louisiana was _____.
Ethnic
What was the difference between Creole and Anglo?
Creoles were very conservative, considered the Anglos radical because they were such strong believers of democracy.
Anglos considered the Creoles so conservative that they don’t want to have any change and were against progress.
None
In the 1830s, the Whig part was led by _____.
Henry Clay of Kentucky
In the 1830s, a two party system developed in Louisiana:
1. Democratic
2. Whig
None
In the 1830s, the Democratic party was led by _____.
Andrew Jackson
In the 1830s, the Democratic party was a descendant of the _____ party.
Jeffersonian
In the 1830s, the _____ party favored a very strong, active central government to develop the country.
Whig
The first leader of the Louisiana Whig party was _____.
US Senator Alexander Porter
Irish, Came to Louisiana at a young age, Lawyer, Settled in St. Mary Parish, Owned a big sugar cane plantation
Alexander Porter
In the 1830s, after Porter died, the leadership of the Whig party passed to another senator, _____.
Judah P. Benjamin
Jewish, Born in the French West Indies, Successful lawyer, Married into a prominent New Orleans family, Only Jewish political leader the Louisiana history
Judah P. Benjamin
_____ were the conservative party in Antebellum Louisiana.
Whigs
During the 1830s, the main political strength was in _____ where there was the most _____.
South Louisiana
Wealth
None
Why were sugar planters such strong Whigs?
Sugar planters, that controlled the wealth, were especially strong Whigs because the national Whig party supported a trade party of high tariffs.
West Indies sugar could be produced cheaper.
High tariff would protect the sugar planters.
None
What were the two main elements of the Whig party?
Planters and Merchants
In 1835, _____ replaced Martin Gordon as the leader of the Democratic party.
US Senator John Slidell
From a prominent New York family who lost all their money in 1819, Became a successful lawyer in New Orleans, Married into a prominent Creole family in New Orleans, Rose quickly to the leadership of the state Democratic party, especially since Gordon was so unpopular, Had great political skills, Would become the most powerful political leader of Antebellum Louisiana, One of the main summon leaders in congress, Born in France
John Slidell
Who would become the most powerful political leader of Antebellum Louisiana?
John Slidell
Democratic Senator _____ was John Slidell’s rival Democratic leader in the Louisiana.
Pierre Soulé
From Virginia, Soldier in the US Army, Commander of the army base in Fort Jessup, One of the leaders with the US defeated Mexico in the 1840s, No political experience, Whig party asked him to be the candidate for president and was elected in 1848 mainly because he was a military hero, Died during his first year in office
Zachary Taylor
The only Louisiana president was _____ who died his first year in office.
Zachary Taylor
Where the four Antebellum governors?
1. Villeré
2. Derbingny
3. A. B. Roman
4. Mouton
None
Who was the first Louisiana born governor?
Villeré
Who was the second elected governor?
Villeré
Who was the only foreign born governor?
Derbingny
Who was the French nobleman who had to give up his title when he came to the US that became governor?
Derbingny
Who was the only Antebellum governor elected twice?
A. B. Roman
Who was the Whig that was a sugar planter from St. James Parish that was elected governor?
A. B. Roman
Who was Louisiana’s first Cajun governor?
Mouton
Who was the governor that was elected as a Democrat in 1842 and his family was the first family in Lafayette?
Mouton
What is the most famous political scandal in Louisiana?
The Case of the Plaquemines Frauds
Where does the Case of the Plaquemines Frauds get its name from?
Plaquemines Parish
What political scandal involved US Senator Slidell and a group of Irish immigrant voters from New Orleans?
Case of the Plaquemines Frauds
The _____ involved the presidential election of 1844.
Case of the Plaquemines Frauds.
Whig party clamed that Slidell fixed the election so that a group of Irish immigrants voted twice during the election.
None
_____ was elected president in 1844, and carried Louisiana.
James K. Polk
What was the most impressive type of political rally?
Torch light rallies, where people would bring pieces of wood and use them as torches.
The Constitution of 1845 was more _____.
Democratic
What constitution reflected a nationwide trend toward more democracy in state government?
The Constitution of 1845
_____ was the first commoner to be elected president.
Andrew Jackson
What was the result of the Constitution of 1845?
The Whig planters and merchants lost control over the state government, especially in the legislature, because it provided for a more democratic system of representation.
What did the Constitution of 1845 do for Louisiana?
1. The legislature was expended (added more seats, which provide more representation for north Louisiana)
2. There was a compromise of the Senate (which remained based on total pollution, including slaves) and the House of Representatives (which was based on the number of registered voters in the district)
3. Preamble was changed to “We the people…” to give it a more democratic tone
4. Property tax requirements were abolished to give all voting rights to all white men
5. Governor was elected by direct vote
6. Governor lost some of his appointed powers (more state and local offices became elective)
7. Two new elected state offices were created (Lieutenant Governor and Super Attendant of Education)
8. Called for a system of public education
9. Created sound banking laws
10. State aid to corporations were abolished (state charged monopolies were abolished)
11. Local government units were changed (counties were abolished, parishes remained, 64 parishes were created, each parish was controlled by a police jury)
None
How many parishes were created under the Constitution of 1845?
64 Parishes
Under the Constitution of 1845, what were the parishes controlled by?
Police Juries
The Constitution of _____ gave democrats control over the system because it created a more democratic system of government.
1845
What did the Whig Constitution of 1852 do for Louisiana?
1. Representation in both houses of the legislature were restored to include slaves
2. State aid to certain corporations was restored, especially railroads and banks
3. State monopolies were restored
4. Nearly all state offices were made elective (Secretary of State—keeps records, Attorney General—legal officer of the state, State Treasurer, and all state/parish judges)
None
Constitution of _____ would remain in effect until the end of the Civil war in 1865. It would also be used in the Confederate state government.
1852
By the end of the Antebellum period, there were three constitutions, they were:
Constitution of 1812
Constitution of 1845
Whig Constitution of 1852
None
State capital had been in _____.
New Orleans
In 1830, the capital was voted to move from New Orleans to _____.
Donalsonville
In 1850, the capital was moved from Donalsonville to _____.
Baton Rouge
What were the main reason for the death of the Whig party?
Whig party was divided against the issue of southern slaves.
North was against, south was for.
In Late 1852, the Whig party died.
None
After the death of the Whig party in 1852, a new national party developed that contained a lot of Whigs called the _____.
American Party
None
What was the American Party commonly known as?
The “Know Nothing” party
Largely a part of reaction, anti, not so much for things as it was against things, mainly against immigration and farmers, against Catholics, against minorities of all kinds, especially blacks and Jews, very strong in New Orleans in the 1850s.
The American, or Know-Nothing, Party
The split between the north and south was mainly over the issue of _____.
Slavery
In the Election of _____, slavery would dominate the election.
1860
Who were the four candidates of 1860?
1. Abraham Lincoln
2. John C. Breckinridge
3. Stephen A. Douglas
4. John Bell
None
Ran for president in 1860, Republican from Illinois, Received the nomination because of his stance on slavery, just prevent the expansion of slaver into new states, Louisiana politicians convinced Louisiana that he would abolish slaver and that secession was the only way to keep slavery.
Abraham Lincoln
_____ was the only candidate left off the ballot in the south for the Election of 1860.
Lincoln
Ran for president in 1860, southern Democrat from Kentucky, vice-president.
John C. Breckinridge
John C. Breckenridge was supported by _____ in the Election of 1860.
Slidell
Ran for president in 1860, a northern Democrat.
Stephen A. Douglas
Ran for president in 1860, from Tennessee, Whigs and Know-Nothings (Constitutional Union Party)
John Bell
Stephen A. Douglas was supported by _____ in the Election of 1860.
Pierre Soulé
Main factors of economic development in Louisiana was _____.
Population
Louisiana achieved statehood in _____.
1812
The Civil War began what year?
1860
The Antebellum Period lasted from _____ to _____.
1812
1860
None
_____ was the most valuable product in America.
Cotton
From 1828-1852, _____ parishes were created in Louisiana.
15
What were the two largest groups that came to Louisiana?
Irish and Germans
Irish came for _____ reasons, where as the Germans came for _____ reasons.
Economic
Democratic
None
Why did free blacks like the south so much?
The south had more rights than the north.
Important population growth were in _____.
Towns
In 1840, _____ was the largest and only city in the state.
New Orleans
In 1840, _____ was the largest city in the south.
New Orleans
In 1840, _____ was the fourth largest city in the US.
New Orleans
In 1840, _____ had the largest sea port in the south and the second largest in the US.
New Orleans
New Orleans is called a “_____” city because it is the place to have a good time and is a favorite city to visit for fun and entertainment.
Cosmopolitan
The most important businessmen of New Orleans were the _____.
Factors
_____ were the heart of the business activity.
Factors
_____ were business agents who handled the business of planters and farmers in the rural areas. They sold their crop for them and they got a commission. Bought supplies for their customers and shipped them to them, all over the state, and they also charged a commission for that.
Factors
_____ were the connection between New Orleans and the rest of the state.
Factors
Difference between a farmer and a planter is that a planter _____.
Owns more than 20 slaves
All the major towns of Louisiana were located on _____.
Rivers or large bayous with steamboat service.
_____ were absolutely essectial to life, like having a large city without an airport.
Steamboats
Second largest town was _____ with a population of 5,500 in 1860.
Baton Rouge
Oldest town in the state was _____, located on the Red River with a population of 1,250 in 1860.
Natchitoches
Largest town in north Louisiana was _____ with a population of 2,200, making it the third largest town in the state in 1860.
Shreveport
_____ was a new town, founded in 1836 and was the fastest growing town in the state.
Shreveport
The growth of Shreveport hurt the growth of _____.
Natchitoches
Largest town in northeast Louisiana was _____ with a population of 1,500 in 1860.
Monroe
(Originally For Miro, before that was the Ouachita Post) Name changed in 1819 for the _____ from New Orleans to arrive, called President Monroe.
First Steamboat
Main town of central Louisiana was _____ with a population of 1,450 in 1860.
Alexandria
Founded in 1810 by _____, who named Alexandria in honor of his daughter.
Fulton
The sugar cane section of Louisiana consisted of what three towns?
Thibodaux, Houma, and Plaquemine
_____ and _____ were in the sugar cane section of Louisiana and each had a population of approximately 1,500 in 1860.
Thibodaux and Houma
In 1860, _____ had a population of 1,600 and was located in the sugar cane section of Louisiana.
Plaquemine
In 1860, the largest town of the Louisiana Hill Country was _____, with a population of 1,150.
Minden
Minden was found in _____.
1835
The largest town in southwest Louisiana was _____ with a population of 800 in 1860.
Opelousas
Anglos were slow to settle along the Red River in northwest Louisiana for two reasons:
1. Caddo Indians were friendly to the Europeans and got to keep their land
2. The Great Red River Raft prevented steamboat navigation above Natchitoches because the river was so jammed up with logs.
None
In the early 1830s, US Congress appropriated money to clear the Red River and hired _____ to do the job.
Captain Shreve
_____ was one of the steamboat pioneers and cleared the Red River to Shreveport.
Captain Shreve
In 1838, Captain Shreve ran out of money and the project stopped, by that time, a new settlement had developed near the upper end of the cleared area called _____.
Shreveport
Shreveport was developed in _____.
1836
US government pressured the Caddo Indians into selling their land by threading them that they wouldn’t protect them when the settlers came in and kicked them out. Chiefs of the Caddo nation didn’t’ want to give it up. Reluctantly, they signed an agreement to sell all the lands they claimed and had to move to Texas. This agreement was called the _____.
Caddo Treaty of 1835
Despite the rapid growth of the towns, most of the people lived in the _____.
rural cities
The state’s economy was based on _____.
Agriculture
_____ were farms that were only a few acres and grew general food crops of all kinds to feed the family and they lived off the land.
Small Frontier Farms
_____ were farms that produced both food and cash crops.
Medium Sized Farms
_____ grew cash crops to be sold on the market.
Large Plantations
The majority of the farms in Louisiana were _____ sized farms.
Medium and Small
What were the five main plantation areas in the state?
1. Mississippi River
2. Red River
3. Ouachita River
4. Bayou Lafourche
5. Bayou Teche
None
What were the two reasons why plantations were located along waterways?
1. Steamboat waterways
2. Fertile land
None
By 1860, there were 1,600 large plantations in Louisiana, mostly in the sugar cane parishes, however, the _____ parish had the most plantations of any other parish (located in the northeast Louisiana along the Mississippi River) with _____ plantations.
Tensas
118
None
Tensas Parish was called _____.
Cotton Kingdom
Plantation agriculture was based on _____ or _____.
Sugar
Cotton
None
Sugar cane was risky for two reasons.
1. Hurricanes could ruin the crop
2. Early frost would ruin it as well
None
Who had the most important advancement in the processing of sugar?
Rillieux
In the 1830s, one important advancement in the process of sugar, de Bore’s way of making sugar was improved by Rillieux who invented a method called the _____, which made more sugar.
Vacuum Pan Process
_____ and _____ produced the wealth of the planters and enabled many of them to live in luxury, especially on the sugar plantations.
Slave Labor
Good Management
None
The great majority of Louisiana farmers were _____ farmers whose main objective was to be self sufficient and to produce everything the family needed to survive.
Subsistence
What kinds of things did small farmers grow??
Corn
Vegetables
Large variety of fruits
Great variety of livestock
Few acres of cotton for cash
None
_____ was an all-purpose crop for people and animals. More acres of _____ produced in Louisiana than any other crop.
Corn
Cattle farming was concentrated in _____ Louisiana.
Southwest
The main type of transportation was _____.
Water
_____ were the most modern type of transportation.
Steamboats
What were the five major waterways in Louisiana with the most steamboat traffic?
1. Mississippi River
2. Red River
3. Ouachita River
4. Bayou Lafourche
5. Bayou Teche
None
The most fancy steamboats were known as _____.
Floating Palaces
What were the types of transportation?
Water, Roads, and Railroads
What would define a class 1 road?
No stumps
What would define a class 2 road?
No stumps over knee high
What would define a class 3 road?
No large trees
Each male citizen 18+ were required to help keep up the roads as a state law with two exceptions:
1. Schoolteachers
2. Preachers
None
What were the four main roads of north Louisiana?
1. El Camino Real (The Royal Road)
2. Ouachita Trail
3. The Military Road
4. Stagecoach Road
None
What road went from Natchitoches to San Antonio to Mexico City, was east of Natchez, and was developed by the Spanish?
The El Camino Real (The Royal Road)
What road went to Fort Miro, was an old Indian trail, and was very dangerous because of all the outlaws?
Ouachita Trail
What road was built by the military US army engineers, was the first north/south road, went from Fort Jessup into Arkansas, and its purpose was to connect the US army bases on the southwest frontier?
The Military Road (1828)
What road did the early settlers find to be the best road and started to use it and was important to the development to north Louisiana?
The Military Road (1828)
What road went east to west, began in the northeast near Lake Providence to Monroe to Marshall, TX?
Stagecoach Road
What road was the first public transportation road and by the late 1850s had built a telegraph line that ran along it? Also known as Wire Road.
Stagecoach Road
_____ were a form of transportation that came to Louisiana in the early 1830s.
Railroads
_____ railroads only went a few miles.
Short line
What were the three short line railroads?
1. Pontchatrain in 1831
2. West Feliciana
3. Clinton and Port Hudson
None
What short line railroad was Louisiana’s first railroad? It went from the Mississippi River to Lake Pontchatrain and then in New Orleans.
Pontchatrain in 1831
What shoreline railroad went from St. Francisville to Woodville, MS, transported cotton, and was in southeast Louisiana?
West Feliciana
What short line railroad went from Clinton to Port Hudson, transported cotton, and was in southeast Louisiana?
Clinton and Port Hudson
Who built the short line railroad that was privately owned?
Ralph Smith Smith
What was important about the short line railroad that Ralph Smith Smith had built?
It was the first railroad west of the Mississippi River anywhere in the US.
What were the three long line railroads in Louisiana?
1. Vicksburg, Shreveport, and Texas (VS & T)
2. New Orleans and Opelousas Great Western
3. New Orleans — Jackson Great Northern
None
What was the long line railroad that was the only north Louisiana railroad, created Ruston, whose construction was disrupted by the Civil War and only got from Vicksburg to Monroe and then Shreveport to Marshall, but would later extend all the way to the Pacific Coast?
Vicksburg, Shreveport, and Texas (VS&T)
What long line rail road was supposed to go from New Orleans to Opelousas, but only made it from New Orleans to Morgan city because its construction was disrupted by the Civil War?
New Orleans and Opelousas Great Western
What long line railroad was built in 1860 and connected New Orleans to Chicago?
New Orleans — Jackson Great Norther