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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
information that is aquired in the course of an experience and that persists so that it can be retrieved long after the experience
Explicit (declerative) Memory
forms of LTM that can be consciously recalled and descrived to others, such as memory for facts, ideas, or events
Episodic memory
The memory of events in our own personal past
Semantic memory
our general knowledge about things in the world and their meaning.
Implicit (nondeclerative) Memory
Non-conscious forms of LTM that are expressed as a change in behaviour
Anterograde Amnesia
Unable to remember info encountered after brain damage
Unable to remember info encountered before the brain damage
Suffered seizures, bilateral removal of his medial temporal lobes
Working memory still intact
Has some episodic memories
His pattern of forgetting show that memories do not permanently depend on the medial temporal lobes
various processes by which info is transformed into a memory representation
Encoding is influenced by a # of factors...
Elaborating..interpreting information and connecting it with other info.
The Generation Effect
More likely to remember info you retrieve or generate than info u receive or attempt to memorise.
*good idea to use flash cards*
The Spacing Effect
More advantageous to distribute reptitions over a space of time than the massing of them at a single time.
3 parts to encoding
1. Attention (fail to encode if you don't pay proper attention to info presented)
2. Elaboration (more like to encode info if you can expand on it and relate it to other info)
3. Consolidation: Modifies the representations such that they become more stable over time and ultimately exist indep. of the med. temp.lobes
The present makes contact with the past..retrieve memories
Pattern Completion
A whole is built from linked parts.
(when a retrieval cue that correspond to part of the encoded info, such as the sight of a certain face, homes in on stored representations of other features bound to that representation - a name, a sign, a convo..thus completes a pattern.
Cues for Retrieval
Retrieval is cue-dependent -> it is stimulated by hints and clues from the external and internal environment
Context-Dependent Effect
Retrieval is typically better when the physical environment matches that at encoding
State-Dependent Effect
Better retreival when internal states at retrieval match that at encoding.
The sense of having previously encountered a stimulus
Reconstructive Memory
we try to reconstruct the past during retrieval rather than try to reproduce it.
Biases in Memory
1. Consistency bias: Belief that one's own attitudes are stable over time.
2. Belief Bias: personal beliefs unconsciously influe memory to reshape it in a form consistent with expectations
Ascribing a recollection to an incorrect time, place, or person.
-- occurs if we encounter stimuli that is similar to previously encountered stimuli
False or misleading info is introduced after the event or is elicited thru the use of leading questions.
Misinformation Effect
Produces misremembering of an orfinal event in line with false info
Inability to recall or recognise previously encoded info
Theories of why we forget
1. Decay THeory:
--> fogetting is caused by spotaneous weakening of memory representation with tim
- doesnt hold up.
2. Interference theories
--> if the same cue is bound to a number of representaions, these representations compete during retrieval
Retroactive Interference
The aquistion of new info interferes with the retrieval of old info
Proactive Intereference
Previously learned info can interefere with memory for info learned later.
Implicit (Priming)
An encounter with a stimulus in which unconscious alterations in our subsequent response to that stimulus occurs.
Skill Leaning (3 Stages)
1. Cognitive Stage
2. Associate Stage
3. Autonomous Stage