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49 Cards in this Set

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The middle region of the cerebrum are spaces, or canals, called _____________.
What is the function?
Ventricles.
They contain a watery fluid that flows throughout the brain and around the spinal cord.
There are three types of neuroglial cells. Name and describe each.
Astrocytes (astroglial cells)are star-like (astr/o means star) and transport water and salts between capillaries and neurons.
Microglia (microglial cells) are small cells with many branching processes. As phagocytes, they protect neurons in response to inflammation.
Oligodendroglia (oligodendroglial cells) have few (olig/o means few or scanty) dendrites. These cells form the myelin sheath that protects axons in the CNS.
Describe what the autonomic nervous system does.
This system of nerve fibers carries impulses from the CNS to the glands, heart, blood vessels, and the involuntary muscles found in the walls of the tubes like the intestines and hollow organs like the stomach and urinary bladder.
Explain what the sympathetic nerves function is.
Stimulate the body in times of stress and crisis. They increase heart rate and forcefulness, dilate airways, increase blood pressure, stimulate the adrenal glands, and inhibit intestinal contractions so that digestion is slower.
The space where the nervous impulse jumps from one neuron to another is called the _____________
Synapse.
This is a column of nervous tissue extending from the medulla oblongata to the second lumbar vertebra with the vertebral column. What is it?
Spinal Column.
The peripheral nervous system consists of a large group of nerves that function involuntarily or automatically, without conscious control. What is the system they belong to?
Autonomic Nervous System.
The cerebral cortex is arranged in folds to form elevated portions known as ____________ (also called ________) and depressions or grooves known as __________ (also called _________).
Convolutions (also called gyri) and
Fissures (also called sulci).
A stimulus begins a wave of excitability in the receptive branching fibers of the neuron, which are called...
Dendrites.
Neurons and nerves are the parenchymal tissue of the nervous system. What does this mean?
They do the essential work of the system by conducting impulses throughout the body.
What is the larges part of the brain called?
Cerebrum
Explain what the parasympathetic nerves function is.
They normally act as a balance for the sympathetic nerves. They slow down heart rate, contract the pupils of the eye, lower blood pressure, stimulate peristalsis to clear the rectum, and increase the quantity of secretions like saliva.
Name the cell that lines membranes within the brain and around the spinal cord and helps form the fluid that circulates within the brain and spinal cord.
Ependymal Cell.
True or False. The brain is the primary center for subduing and controlling some body activities.
False. The brain is the primary center for regulating and coordinating body activities.
The stromal tissue of the nervous system consists of other cells called _______.
Describe its function.
Neuroglia.
Neuroglial cells are supportive and connective in function, as well as phagocytic, and are able to help the nervous system ward off infection and injury. Neuroglial cells do not transmit impulses but are more numerous than neurons and are capable of reproduction.
What is the large network of nerves in the peripheral nervous system? Name some of them.
Plexus.
Cervical, brachial, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal plexuses are examples.
The nervous impulse passes through the axon to leave the cell via the _______ ______ ________ of the neuron.
Terminal end fibers.
What is a neuron?
An individual nerve cell, a microscopic structure.
The medulla oblongata also contains important vital centers that regulate internal activities of the body. Name them. (hint: there are three)
Respiratory Center
Cardiac Center
Vasomotor Center
The cerebral hemispheres are what?
The paired halves of the cerebrum.
The spinal and cranial nerves are mainly composed of nerves that are what? Hint: means body.
They are composed of nerves that are somatic (som/o means body).
Some of the autonomic nerves are called ______ nerves and others are called ________ nerves.
Sympathetic nerves.
Parasympathetic nerves.
Describe what the thalamus is and its location.
Is a large mass of gray matter that acts as a relay center for impulses that travel from receptors such as the eye, ear, and skin to the cerebrum. It integrates and monitors these sensory impulses, suppressing some and magnifying others. Perception of pain is controlled by this area of the brain.
The Thalamus is below the cerebrum.
A change in the electrical charge of the dendrite membranes begins and the nervous impulse wave moves along the dendrite. The impulse, traveling in only one direction, next reaches the _____ _____
Cell Body.
What does sensory or afferent mean?
To carry toward. (Nerves that carry messages related to changes in the external environment to (toward) the CNS.
Extending from the cell body is the ________. What is its function?
Axon.
The axon carries the impulse away from the cell body.
What does motor or efferent mean?
To carry away from. (Nerves travel from the CNS to voluntary muscles of the body, telling them how to respond.
What are ganglia (singular: ganglion)?
Small collections of nerve cell bodies outside the brain and spinal cord.
Name the fluid that protects the brain and spinal cord from shock. Describe what it looks like.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
It is usually clear and colorless and contains lymphocytes, sugar, chlorides, and protein.
What is the procedure where spinal fluid is withdrawn for diagnosis or relief of pressure on the brain called?
Lumbar puncture (LP)
A nerve is macroscopic. What does this mean?
Is able to be seen with the naked eye.
What does Cauda Equina mean and what is it and where is it located?
Cauda Equina means horse's tail.
It is a fan of nerve fibers found below the second lumbar vertebra of the spinal column. It carries all of the nerves that affect the limbs and lower part of the body, and the pathway for impulses going to and from the brain.
The inner section of the spinal cord contains what?
Gray Matter.
Gray Matter contains cell bodies and dentrites of peripheral nerves.
There is another axon covering. What is it called and where is it located?
Neurilemma.
It is a membranous sheath outside the myelin sheath on the nerve cells of the peripheral nerves.
The outer region of the spinal cord contains what?
What is its function?
White Matter.
White matter contains the nerve fiber tracts with myelin sheaths and conducts impulses to and from the brain.
Name the three layers of meninges and describe each.
Dura Mater--the outermost membrane of the meninges. It is thick and tough and contains channels through which blood can enter the brain tissue.

Arachnoid Membrane--the second layer of the meninges. this spider-like membrane is loosely attached to the ohter meninges by web-like fibers so there is a space for fluid between the fibers and the third membrane.

Pia Mater--is the third layer of the meninges, closest to the brain and spinal cord. It is made of delicate (pia) connective tissue with a rich supply of blood vessels.
What are the three connective tissue membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord?
Meninges.
What is the axon covered with?
What is the function of this covering?
Covered with a fatty tissue called a myelin sheath.
The myelin sheath gives a white appearance to the nerve fiber--hence the term white matter, as in parts of the spinal cord and brain and most peripheral nerves.
What are the structures within the brain that lie below the posterior portion of the cerebrum and connect the cerebrum and spinal cord?
Name and describe them.
Cerebellum
Pons
Medulla Oblongata

The cerebellum is located beneath the posterior part of the cerebrum. Its function is to aid in the coordination of voluntary movements and to maintain balance, posture, and muscular tone.

The pons is a part of the brain that literally means bridge. It contains nerve fiber tracts that connect the cerebellum and cerebrum with the rest of the brain.

The medulla oblongata, located at the base of the brain, connects the spinal cord with the rest of the brain. Nerve tracts cross over in the medulla oblongata.
What does a nerve consist of?
A bundle of dendrites and axons that travel together like strands of rope.
What does the Peripheral Nervous system consist of?
Consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves.
What does the Central Nervous System consist of?
The brain and spinal cord.
What is a neurotransmitter?
It is a chemical substance released by the neuron that brings the impulse to the synapse.
The nervous system is classified into two major divisions. What are they?
Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System.
Where do the cranial nerves carry impulses?
Between the brain and the head and neck.
There is one cranial nerve that is an exception. What is it called and where does it carry messages to and from?
The one exception is the 10th cranial nerve, called the vagus nerve. It carries messages to and from the chest and abdomen, as well as the head and neck regions.
There is a protective barrier between the blood and brain cells. What is it?
Blood-brain barrier.
Describe what the hypothalamus is and its location.
It contains neurons that control body temperature, sleep, appetite, sexual desire, and emotions such as fear and pleasure. It also regulates the release of hormones from the pituitary gland and integrates the activities of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
It is located below the Thalamus.
The outer nervous tissue of the cerebrum is known as the _______ ______
Cerebral cortex.