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80 Cards in this Set

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Albumen
Protein in blood; maintains proper amount of water in blood.
Antibodies
Protein Substances whose formation by lymphocytes is stimulated by the presence of antigens in the body. The Ab then helps to neutralize the Ag that stimulated it.
Basophil
WBC with large dark basic staining granules
Bilirubin
Dk. Green pigment produced from hemoglobin when RBC's are destroyed. Is concentrated in the liver/excreted in feces.
Coagulation
Process of blood clotting
Colony-stimulating factors CFS
proteins that stimulate growth proliferation of WBC (granulocytes)
Corpuscle
little body- refers to a blood cell
Differentiation
Change in structure function of a cell as it matures. Specialization of a stem cell.
Electrophoresis
Method of separating substances like proteins by electrical charge.
Eosinophil
WBC with dense redish granules associated with allergic reactions
Erythrocyte
A RBC (5 million in a spec of blood size of a pinhead)
NO nucleus
Fibrin
protein threads that form basis of clot
Fibrinogen
Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in clotting
Formed elements
Cellular elements in blood
RBC
WBC
Thrombocytes
Globin
Protein part of hemoglobin
Globulin
Plasma protein is separated into alpha, beta and gamma globulin
Granulocytes
WBCs with granules: eosinophil/neutrophils/basophils
Heme
Iron containing nonprotein portion of hemoglobin molecule
Hemoglobin
Blood protein in RBC's carries O2
Heparin
anticoagulant produced by liver cells found in blood tissues
Immune reaction
Process by which an Antibody neutralizes an antigen
Immunoglobulin
A protein (globin) wiht Antibodies
(ex IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD)
Immun/o = protection
Leukocyte
a WBC
Monocyte
A phagocyte WBC formed in bone marrow. They become macrophages as they enter body tissues from the blood.
Myeloid
Derived from bone marrow cells
Neutrophil
WBC (granulocyte) formed in bone marrow; phagocyte with neutral staining granules (PMN leukocyte) polymorphonuclear
Plama
liquid portion of blood; contains water, proteins, salts, nutrients hormones, and vitamins. Contains everything but formed elements.
Plasmapheresis
Process of using centrifuge to separate the formed elements from blood plasma. Formed elements are retransfused into the donor and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is used to replace withdrawn plasma. May be done to collect plasma for analysis or therapy
Platelet
smallest formed element in blood; Thrombocyte
Protrhrombin
Plasma protein; converted to thrombin in clotting process.
Reticulocyte Rh factor
Developing RBC with network of granules in its cytoplasm an antigen normally found on RBCs of Rh+ individuals
Serum
plasma ninus clotting proteins/cells
Stem cell
A cell in bone that gives rise to different types of blood cells
Thrombin
Enzyme helping convert fibrinogen to fibrin during coagulation
Thrombocyte
platelet
Thromboplastin
A clotting factor that promotes fibrin clot formation along with calcium.
Dyscrasia
any abnormal/pathological condition of the blood
Anemia
deficiency in erythrocytes or hemoglobin. Iron deficiency is the most common.
aplastic anemia
Failure of blood cell production due to aplasia (absence of develpment/formation)of bone marrow cells. Panytopenia occurs as stem cells fail to produce RBC, WBC, and platelets
hemolytic anemia
Reduction in RBC due to excessive destruction. Example is congenital spherocytic anemia (hereditary spherocytosis). In some cases, hemolytic anemia is due to production of autoimmune Abs that destroy RBCs
Pernicious Anemia
Lack of mature RBCs owing to inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body. Vitamin B12 cannot be absorbed without intrinsic factor which is found in the gastric juice. People with this- lack this. The result is excess of Ig immature and poorly functioning cells megaloblasts in the circulation
Sickle Cell Anemia
Hereditary condition characterized by abnormal shape of RBCs and hemolysis. Genetic defect is the presence of the Hemoglobin S gene. It is prevalent in African Americans.
thalassemia
Inherited defect in the ability to produce hemoglobin, seen in Mediterranean persons. Presents in various forms/degrees with the most severe form being Cooley's anemia. Hg content is diminished in these people (Hypochromic anemia)
Hemochromatosis-
Excessive deposits of iron throughout the body
Polycythemia
increase in RBCs
Erythema
Leukemia
An increase in cancerous white blood cells. Typwe are
Acute- large number of immature leukocytes
Chronic- large number of mature or differentiated leukocytes
Acute myelogenous (myelocytic) leukemia (AML)
immature granulocytes (myeloblasts) predominate. Platelets/RBCs are diminished because of infiltration/replacement of bone marrow by large numbers of myeloblasts.
Chronic myelogenous (myelocytic) leukemia
(CML)
Both mature/immature granulocytes are present in marrow/bloodstream. A slowly progressive illness with which patients may live for many years without encountering life threatening problems.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
(CLL)
Abnormal numbers of relatively mature lymphocytes predominate in the marrow lymph nodes/spleen. Usually occurs in elderly and is slowly progressive
Remission
Disappearance of signs of disease
Relapse
Leukemia cells reappear in blood or bone marrow
Bone Marrow Transplant
ACUTE leukemias
Eosinophilia -
increase in eosinophilic granulocytes seen in alleregic conditions parasitic infections
Basophilia
increase in basophilic granulocytes seen in certain leukemias
Mononucleosis
Infectious disease evidenced by an increase number of lymphocytes and enlarged cervical lymph nodes caused by Epstein Barr Virus
Bleeding Time
The time it takes for small puncture wound to stop bleeding. Normal 8 minutes (longer ASA, platelet disorders)
Most widely used method = Simplate test
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
RBC
WBC with Diff
platelet
Hg
Hct
Red blood cell indices MCH MCV MCHC
Coagulation (clotting) Time
time required for venous blood to clot in test tube Nomal is less than 15 minutes
Hematocrit
% of RBCs in a volume of blood
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
Sed Rate
ESR
speed at which RBC's settle out of plasma. Altered in infections, joint imflammation, tumor 9all which increase immunoglobulin content of blood)
Hemoglobin (Hb Hgb)
Total amount of hemoglobin in a sample
Partial thromboplastin time
measure presence of coagulation pathway factors
Platelet Count
number of platelets per cubic millimeter
Normal = 200,000 - 400,000/cu mm
Protrhombin Time
A test of blood's ability to clot
RBC count
# of RBC per cubic millimeter of blood
N= 4-6 million/cu mm
RBC morphology
stained blood smear is examined to determine shape of individual red cells. Ex. anisocytosis, poikilocytosis, sickle cells, and hypochromia can be noted.)
WBC differential
determines the #s of different types of leukocytes
"Left shift" = increase in immature and decrease in mature neutrophils.
Apheresis
separation of blood into its parts (used to remove toxic substances/autoantibodies from blood or to harvest blood cells.
Bone marrow biopsy
needle introduced into bone marrow cavity and a small amount of marrow is aspirated examined under microscope. For diagnosis: anemia, cytopenia, leukemia
Bone marrow transplant
Bone marrow cells from matched donor are infused into pt with leukemia or aplastic anemia
WBC count
# of leukocytes per cubic millimeter
Normal = 5,000-10,000 per cu mm)
Acute lymphocytic leukemia
(ALL)
Immature lymphocytes (lymphoblasts) predominate. Seen most often in children adolescents. Sudden onset.
Granulocytosis
abnormal increase in granulocytes in blood.
Blood transfusion
whole blood or cells are taken from donor and after appropriate testing to ensure close match of red cell or platelet type, the whole blood or cell are infused into a patient. All specimens are tested for hepatitis/AIDS. Autologous transfusion -collection/later reinfusion of pts own blood or blood components
Antiglobulin Test (Coombs Test)
Determines if RBC are coated with antibodies. Used in infants of Rh- women and patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Agglutination
Clumping of recipients blood cells when incompatible bloods are mixed.
Hemophilia
Excessive bleeding caused by congenital lack of one of the protein substances (factor VIII) necessary for clotting.
Lymphocyte
WBC (agranulocyte) that produces Antibodies
Macrophages
Big monocytes that migrated from the blood to tissue spaces. Are large phagocytes that destroy RBCs at the end of their lifespan of 120 days. They also engulf foreign material
Purpura
Multiple pinpoint hemorrhages/accumulation of blood under the skin. Causes may be immunological (body produces antiplatelet factor that destroys its own platelets. Indiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura = condition in which a pt. makes an AB that destroys his/her own platelets