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52 Cards in this Set

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hydrochloric acid
substance produced by the stomach; necessary for food digestion.
mastication
chewing
amylase
enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch
triglycerides
large fat molecules composed of 3 molecules of fatty acids with 1 molecule of glycerol.
sigmoid colon
lower part of the colon, shaped like an S
liver
large organ in RUQ of abdomen, it secretes bile, stores sugar, iron & vitamins; produces blood proteins; destroys worn-out red blood cells. Weighs 2.5 - 3 lbs in adults.
lower esophageal sphincter
ring of muscles between esophagus & stomach; a.k.a. cardiac sphincter.
jejunum
second part of small intestine, between duodenum & ileum. About 8' in length.
palate
roof of mouth; hard palate is anterior to the soft palate.
feces
solid waste / stools
pancreas
organ under the stomach; produces insulin & enzymes.
glycogen
starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells.
glucose
simple sugar
appendix
blind pouch hanging from the first part of the colon (cecum). Literally means 'hanging on'. Usually found in the RLQ.
anus
opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
lipase
pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats.
esophagus
tube connecting the throat to the stomach
gallbladder
small sac under the liver; stores bile
papillae
small elevations on the tongue. (singular is papilla).
*a papilla is any nipple-like elevation.
villi
microscopic projections in walls of small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream. (singular: villus)
alimentary canal
the digestive tract (canal); aliment means food
parotid gland
salivary gland within cheek, just anterior to the ear.
sphincter
ring of muscles within a tube
enzyme
a chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. Digestive enzymes aid in breakdown of complex foods to simpler foods.
bile
digestive juice made in liver & stored in gallbladder. It emulsifies large fat globules. Composed of bile pigments, cholesterol & bile salts.
digestion
breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms.
fatty acids
substances produced when fats are digested.
portal vein
large vein bringing blood to liver from intestines
emulsification
physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller ones, increasing surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.
bilirubin
pigment released by liver in bile. Produced from the destruction of hemoglobin.
bowel
intestine
cecum
first part of large intestine
duodenum
first part of small intestine. (duo=2, den=10... duodenum measures 12" in length)
stomach
muscular organ that receives food from esophagus; divided into fundus, body, & antrum (distal portion).
ileum
3rd (& longest) part of small intestine, about 12' in length.
canine teeth
pointed, dog-like teeth next to the incisors; a.k.a. cuspids or eyeteeth.
uvula
soft tissue hanging from the soft palate into the mouth.
peristalsis
rhythm-like contractions of the tubes of the GI tract (& other tube-like structures)- moves contents thru stomach in .5 to 2 hrs, small intestine in 2-6 hrs, & colon in 6-72 hrs
amino acids
small substances that are the building blocks of proteins & are produced when proteins are digested
salivary glands
parotid, sublingual, & submandibular glands
proteases
enzymes that digest protein
common bile duct
carries bile from liver & gallbladder to the duodenum
insulin
hormone produced by endocrine cells of pancreas. Transports sugar into cells from the blood & stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
pulp
soft tissue within tooth-contains nerves & blood vessels.
pyloric sphincter
ring of muscle at distal region of stomach, where it joins the duodenum.
rectum
last section of the colon.
rugae
ridges on the hard palate & wall of the stomach.
colon
large intestine; cecum, ascending, transverse & descending colon, & rectum
deglutition
swallowing
dentin
major tissue composing teeth; covered by the enamel in the crown & a protective layer of cementum in the root.
saliva
digestive juice produced by salivary glands
absorption
passage of materials through the walls of the intestine into the bloodstream